Arsenic

Arsenic (As)

Arsenic is the 33rd element in the periodic table and has a symbol of As and atomic number of 33. It has an atomic weight of 74.92159 and a mass number of 75. Arsenic has thirty-three protons and forty-two neutrons in its nucleus, and thirty-three electrons in four shells. It is located in group fifteen, period four and block p of the periodic table. Metalloid element of group 15. There are three allotropes, yellow, black, and grey. Reacts with halogens, concentrated oxidizing acids and hot alkalis. Albertus Magnus is believed to have been the first to isolate the element in 1250.
Atomic Number33
Atomic Weight74.921595
Mass Number75
Group15
Period4
Blockp
Protons33 p+
Neutrons42 n0
Electrons33 e-
Animated Bohr Model of As (Arsenic)

Physical Properties

Atomic Radius
115 pm
Molar Volume
Covalent Radius
121 pm
Metallic Radius
121 pm
Ionic Radius
58 pm
Crystal Radius
72 pm
Van der Waals Radius
185 pm
Density
5.75 g/cm³
Atomic Radii of the Elements: Arsenic0102030405060708090100110120130140150160170180190pmAtomic RadiusCovalent RadiusMetallic RadiusVan der Waals Radius

Chemical Properties

Energy
Proton Affinity
Electron Affinity
Ionization Energy
Ionization Energies of As (Arsenic)
Heat of Vaporization
32.4 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
Heat of Formation
302.5 kJ/mol
Electrons
Electron Shells2, 8, 18, 5
Bohr Model: As (Arsenic)
Valence Electrons5
Lewis Structure: As (Arsenic)
Electron Configuration[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p3
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p3
Enhanced Bohr Model of As (Arsenic)
Orbital Diagram of As (Arsenic)
Oxidation States-3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Electronegativity
2.18
Electrophilicity Index
1.5610969532554257 eV/particle
States of Matter
PhaseSolid
Gas Phase
Boiling Point
889.15 K
Melting Point
1,090.15 K
Critical Pressure
22.3 MPa
Critical Temperature
1,673.15 K
Triple Point
1,090.15 K
3,700 kPa
Visual

Arsenic is a Silver. As has a CPK of #ff1493, Jmol of #bd80e3, and MOLCAS GV of #bd80e3. The Appearance of Element 33 is metallic grey. The Refractive Index of Arsenic (As) is 1.001552.

Color
Silver
Appearancemetallic grey
Refractive Index
1.001552
Thermodynamic Properties
Thermal Conductivity
Thermal Expansion
Molar Heat Capacity
24.64 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.329 J/(g⋅K)
Heat Capacity Ratio (Adiabatic Index)
Electrical Properties
TypeConductor
Electrical Conductivity
3.3 MS/m
Electrical Resistivity
0.0000003 m Ω
Superconducting Point
Magnetism
Typediamagnetic
Magnetic Susceptibility (Mass)
-0.0000000039 m³/Kg
Magnetic Susceptibility (Molar)
-0.000000000292 m³/mol
Magnetic Susceptibility (Volume)
-0.0000223
Magnetic Ordering
Curie Point
Neel Point
Structure

The Crystal Structure of Arsenic is RHL. The lattice constant of As is 4.13 Å. The lattice angles of Element 33 are π/2, π/2, 2 π/3.

Crystal StructureSimple Trigonal (RHL)
Lattice Constant
4.13 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, 2 π/3
Mechanical Properties

Arsenic has a Brinell of 1440 MPa, and Mohs hardness of 3.5 MPa. The Bulk Modulus of As is 22 GPa. The Young Modulus of Element 33 is 8 GPa.

Hardness
3.5 MPa
Bulk Modulus
22 GPa
Shear Modulus
Young's Modulus
8 GPa
Poisson Ratio
Speed of Sound
Classification

The CAS Group of Arsenic is VB. The IUPAC Group of As is VA. The Glawe Number of Element 33 is 90. The Mendeleev Number of Arsenic (As) is 95. The Pettifor Number of Arsenic is 89. The Geochemical Class of As is semi-volatile. The Goldschmidt Class of Element 33 is chalcophile.

CategoryMetalloids, Metalloids
CAS GroupVB
IUPAC GroupVA
Glawe Number90
Mendeleev Number95
Pettifor Number89
Geochemical Classsemi-volatile
Goldschmidt Classchalcophile

Other

The Dipole Polarizability of Arsenic is 30 plus or minus 1 a₀. As has a C6 Dispersion Coefficient (CD) of 246 a₀, and C6 Dispersion Coefficient (GB) of 260 a₀. The Allotropes of Element 33 are Yellow Arsenic, Black Arsenic, Gray Arsenic. The Neutron Cross Section of Arsenic (As) is 4.2. The Neutron Mass Absorption of Arsenic is 0.002. The Quantum Numbers of As is 4S3/2. The Space Group of Element 33 is 166 (R_3m).

Gas Basicity
Dipole Polarizability
30 ± 1 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
246 a₀
AllotropesYellow Arsenic, Black Arsenic, Gray Arsenic
Neutron Cross Section
4.2
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.002
Quantum Numbers4S3/2
Space Group166 (R_3m)

Isotopes of Arsenic

Stable Isotopes1
Unstable Isotopes32
Natural Isotopes1

60As

Mass Number60
Neutron Number27
Relative Atomic Mass
59.993945 ± 0.000429 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin5
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
p (proton emission)

61As

Mass Number61
Neutron Number28
Relative Atomic Mass
60.981535 ± 0.000322 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
p (proton emission)

62As

Mass Number62
Neutron Number29
Relative Atomic Mass
61.973784 ± 0.000322 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
p (proton emission)

63As

Mass Number63
Neutron Number30
Relative Atomic Mass
62.964036 ± 0.000215 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
p (proton emission)

64As

Mass Number64
Neutron Number31
Relative Atomic Mass
63.95756 ± 0.000218 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
69 ± 1.4 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1995
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

65As

Mass Number65
Neutron Number32
Relative Atomic Mass
64.949611 ± 0.000091 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
130.3 ± 0.6 ms
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1991
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

66As

Mass Number66
Neutron Number33
Relative Atomic Mass
65.944148778 ± 0.0000061 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
95.77 ± 0.23 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1978
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

67As

Mass Number67
Neutron Number34
Relative Atomic Mass
66.93925111 ± 0.000000475 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
42.5 ± 1.2 s
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1980
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

68As

Mass Number68
Neutron Number35
Relative Atomic Mass
67.936774127 ± 0.000001981 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
151.6 ± 0.8 s
Spin3
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1971
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

69As

Mass Number69
Neutron Number36
Relative Atomic Mass
68.932246289 ± 0.000034352 Da
G-Factor
0.6488 ± 0.0008
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
15.2 ± 0.2 m
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1955
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

70As

Mass Number70
Neutron Number37
Relative Atomic Mass
69.930934642 ± 0.0000015 Da
G-Factor
0.5276 ± 0.000125
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
52.6 ± 0.3 m
Spin4
Quadrupole Moment
0.09 ± 0.02
Discovery Year1950
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

71As

Mass Number71
Neutron Number38
Relative Atomic Mass
70.927113594 ± 0.000004469 Da
G-Factor
0.6692 ± 0.0008
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
65.3 ± 0.07 h
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
-0.021 ± 0.006
Discovery Year1939
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

72As

Mass Number72
Neutron Number39
Relative Atomic Mass
71.926752291 ± 0.000004383 Da
G-Factor
-1.0805 ± 0.0003
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
26 ± 0.1 h
Spin2
Quadrupole Moment
-0.08 ± 0.02
Discovery Year1939
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

73As

Mass Number73
Neutron Number40
Relative Atomic Mass
72.923829086 ± 0.000004136 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
80.3 ± 0.06 d
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1948
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

74As

Mass Number74
Neutron Number41
Relative Atomic Mass
73.923928596 ± 0.000001817 Da
G-Factor
-0.798 ± 0.0015
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
17.77 ± 0.02 d
Spin2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1938
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)66%
β (β decay)34%

75As

Mass Number75
Neutron Number42
Relative Atomic Mass
74.921594562 ± 0.000000948 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
100
RadioactivityStable
Half LifeNot Radioactive ☢️
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.311 ± 0.002
Discovery Year1920
Parity-

76As

Mass Number76
Neutron Number43
Relative Atomic Mass
75.922392011 ± 0.000000951 Da
G-Factor
0.45115 ± 0.0005
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
1.0933 ± 0.0038 d
Spin2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1934
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

77As

Mass Number77
Neutron Number44
Relative Atomic Mass
76.920647555 ± 0.000001816 Da
G-Factor
0.86266666666667 ± 0.00086666666666667
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
38.79 ± 0.05 h
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1951
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

78As

Mass Number78
Neutron Number45
Relative Atomic Mass
77.921827771 ± 0.000010498 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
90.7 ± 0.2 m
Spin2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1937
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

79As

Mass Number79
Neutron Number46
Relative Atomic Mass
78.920948419 ± 0.000005716 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
9.01 ± 0.15 m
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1950
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

80As

Mass Number80
Neutron Number47
Relative Atomic Mass
79.92247444 ± 0.000003578 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
15.2 ± 0.2 s
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1954
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

81As

Mass Number81
Neutron Number48
Relative Atomic Mass
80.922132288 ± 0.000002838 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
33.3 ± 0.8 s
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1960
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

82As

Mass Number82
Neutron Number49
Relative Atomic Mass
81.924738731 ± 0.000004003 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
19.1 ± 0.5 s
Spin2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1968
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

83As

Mass Number83
Neutron Number50
Relative Atomic Mass
82.9252069 ± 0.000003004 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
13.4 ± 0.4 s
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1968
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

84As

Mass Number84
Neutron Number51
Relative Atomic Mass
83.92930329 ± 0.000003403 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
3.16 ± 0.58 s
Spin2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1968
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)0.28%

85As

Mass Number85
Neutron Number52
Relative Atomic Mass
84.932163658 ± 0.000003304 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
2.022 ± 0.007 s
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1967
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)62.6%

86As

Mass Number86
Neutron Number53
Relative Atomic Mass
85.936701532 ± 0.000003703 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
945 ± 8 ms
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1973
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)35.5%
2n (2-neutron emission)

87As

Mass Number87
Neutron Number54
Relative Atomic Mass
86.940291716 ± 0.000003204 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
492 ± 25 ms
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1970
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)15.4%
2n (2-neutron emission)

88As

Mass Number88
Neutron Number55
Relative Atomic Mass
87.94584 ± 0.000215 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
270 ± 150 ms
Spin
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1994
Parity

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

89As

Mass Number89
Neutron Number56
Relative Atomic Mass
88.950048 ± 0.000322 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1994
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

90As

Mass Number90
Neutron Number57
Relative Atomic Mass
89.955995 ± 0.000429 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1997
Parity

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

91As

Mass Number91
Neutron Number58
Relative Atomic Mass
90.960816 ± 0.000429 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1997
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

92As

Mass Number92
Neutron Number59
Relative Atomic Mass
91.967386 ± 0.000537 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1997
Parity

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)
Arsen 1

History

Greek historian Olympiodorus of Thebes roasted arsenic sulfide and obtained white arsenic during 5th century AD. Albertus Magnus is believed to have been the first to isolate the element from a compound in 1250, by heating soap together with arsenic trisulfide. In 1649, Johann Schröder published two ways of preparing arsenic. From the Latin word arsenicum, Greek arsenikon

DiscoverersKnown to the ancients.
Discovery Location
Discovery Year
Etymology (Name Origin)Greek: arsenikon; Latin: arsenicum, (both names for yellow pigment).
PronunciationAR-s'n-ik (English)
Arsenic and its compounds are poisonous
Prawns are known to contain quite high levels of arsenic

Uses

The toxicity of arsenic to insects, bacteria and fungi led to its use as a wood preservative and as insecticides. Arsenic is used in bronzing, pyrotechny, and for hardening and improving the sphericity of shot. Gallium arsenide is a semiconductor used in laser diodes and LEDs. Small amounts of arsenic can be used in lead alloys for ammunition. Many of its compounds are deadly poison and used as weed killer and rat poison. Conducts electricity. Used in semiconductors. Some compounds, called arsenides, are used in the manufacture of paints, wallpapers, and ceramics.

Sources

Found in mispickel (arsenopyrite)

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
1.8 mg/kg
Natural Abundance (Oceans)
0.0037 mg/L
Natural Abundance (Human Body)
0.000005 %
Natural Abundance (Meteor)
0.00018 %
Natural Abundance (Sun)
Abundance in Universe
0.0000008 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s0.7217
2p3.9264
2s8.873
3d15.6216
3p15.1503
3s14.4045
4p25.5508
4s24.056

Also Known As

  • As
  • element 33
  • 33As

Translations

  • Norwegian Bokmålarsen
  • GermanArsen
  • Frencharsenic
  • Italianarsenico
  • Russianмышьяк
  • Dutcharseen
  • Spanisharsénico
  • Hungarianarzén
  • Afrikaansarseen
  • Amharicአርሰኒክ
  • AragoneseArsén
  • Arabicزرنيخ
  • AzerbaijaniArsen
  • BelarusianМыш'як
  • Bulgarianарсен
  • Banglaআর্সেনিক
  • BretonArsenik
  • Bosnianarsen
  • Catalanarsènic
  • CorsicanArsenicu
  • Czecharsen
  • ChuvashМаркăмăш
  • WelshArsenig
  • Danisharsen
  • Greekαρσενικό
  • Esperantoarseno
  • EstonianArseen
  • Basqueartseniko
  • Persianآرسنیک
  • Finnisharseeni
  • FriulianArsenic
  • Irisharsanaic
  • Galicianarsénico
  • GuaraniÑongatuita
  • ManxArsnick
  • Hakka ChinesePhî
  • Hebrewארסן
  • Hindiआर्सेनिक
  • Fiji HindiArsenic
  • CroatianArsen
  • Haitian CreoleAsenik
  • Armenianարսեն
  • Interlinguaarsenico
  • Indonesianarsen
  • Idoarseno
  • Icelandicarsen
  • Japaneseヒ素
  • Lojbanarseniko
  • JavaneseArsenik
  • Georgianდარიშხანი
  • Korean비소
  • Komi-PermyakМышьяк
  • KomiЕджыд из
  • Latinarsenicum
  • LuxembourgishArsen
  • LigurianArscenigo
  • LithuanianArsenas
  • Latvianarsēns
  • MokshaСуляма
  • Malayalamആർസെനിക്
  • Marathiआर्सेनिक
  • Western MariМышьяк
  • Malayarsenik
  • Burmeseစိန်ဖြူ
  • Low GermanArsen
  • Norwegian Nynorskarsen
  • OccitanArsenic
  • Punjabiਸੰਖੀਆ/ਅਰਸਨਿਕ
  • PampangaArsenic
  • Polisharsen
  • PiedmonteseArsénich
  • Western Panjabiآرسینک
  • Pashtoارسینک
  • Portuguesearsénio
  • QuechuaArsiniku
  • Romanianarsen
  • SardinianArsènicu
  • Sicilianarsènicu
  • Serbo-CroatianArsenik
  • SlovakArzén
  • SlovenianArzen
  • AlbanianArseniku
  • Serbianарсен
  • Saterland FrisianArsen
  • Swedisharsenik
  • SwahiliAsenia
  • Tamilஆர்சனிக்
  • Teluguఆర్సెనిక్
  • TajikАрсен
  • Thaiสารหนู
  • TagalogArseniko
  • Turkisharsenik
  • Uyghurئارسېن
  • Ukrainianарсен
  • Urduزرنیخ
  • UzbekMargimush
  • VepsArsen
  • Vietnameseasen
  • WarayArsenico
  • KalmykЦанхорн
  • Yiddishארסעניק
  • YorubaArsenic
  • Chinese
  • English (Canada)Arsenic
  • English (United Kingdom)arsenic
  • Chinese (China)
  • Chinese (Simplified)
  • Chinese (Traditional)
  • CebuanoArsenico
  • Central Kurdishزەڕنیخ
  • KazakhМышьяк
  • Northern FrisianArsen
  • Kannadaಆರ್ಸೆನಿಕ್
  • Gujaratiસોમલ
  • Odiaଆର୍ସେନିକ
  • Scotsarsenic
  • Newariआर्सेनिक
  • TatarМышьяк
  • Cantonese
  • MacedonianАрсен
  • Min Nan ChinesePhi-sò͘
  • SomaliAarsenik
  • Belarusian (Taraskievica orthography)аршэньнік
  • Literary Chinese
  • Chinese (Hong Kong SAR China)
  • Chinese (Taiwan)
  • KyrgyzМышьяк
  • cdoPiĕ
  • FaroeseArsen
  • Portuguese (Brazil)arsênio
  • Nepaliआर्सेनिक
  • Sanskritआर्सेनिक
  • ErzyaМышьяк
  • Maltesearseniku
  • LombardArsénich
  • AsturianArsénicu
  • Scottish GaelicArsnaig
  • Paliआर्सेनिक
  • Bhojpuriआर्सेनिक
  • azbآرسنیک
  • Mongolianхүнцэл
  • SundaneseArsen
  • Tibetanབ་བླ།
  • LimburgishArseen
  • Lingua Franca Novaarsenico
  • kbpArɩsɛnɩkɩ
  • Wu Chinese
  • OsseticМыстымарг
  • oloMisjakku
  • AromanianArsenic
  • KabyleIhiǧǧ
  • Moroccan Arabicزرنيخ
  • Egyptian Arabicزرنيخ
  • BikolArseniko
  • CornishArsenik
  • MinangkabauArsen
  • BalineseArsenik
  • GandaAseniki
  • Sindhiآرسينڪ
  • ZuluIsAsumu
  • MalagasyArsenika
  • blkအာသဲန်းနေက်