સોનું

સોનું (Au)

chemical element with symbol Au and atomic number 79
Atomic Number79
Atomic Weight196.966569
mass number197
Group11
Period6
Blockd
પ્રોટોન79 p+
neutron118 n0
ઈલેક્ટ્રોન79 e-
Animated બૉહરનો સિદ્ધાંત of Au (સોનું)

Physical Property

Atomic Radius
135 pm
molar volume
Covalent Radius
124 pm
Metallic Radius
134 pm
ionic radius
137 pm
Crystal Radius
151 pm
Van der Waals radius
214 pm
density
19.3 g/cm³
Atomic Radii Of The Elements: સોનું0102030405060708090100110120130140150160170180190200210220pmAtomic RadiusCovalent RadiusMetallic RadiusVan der Waals radius

રાસાયણિક ગુણધર્મ

ઉર્જા
proton affinity
electron affinity
2.30863 eV/particle
ionization energy
9.225553 eV/particle
ionization energy of Au (સોનું)
enthalpy of vaporization
340 kJ/mol
enthalpy of fusion
12.68 kJ/mol
standard enthalpy of formation
368.2 kJ/mol
ઈલેક્ટ્રોન
electron shell2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 1
બૉહરનો સિદ્ધાંત: Au (સોનું)
valence electron1
Lewis structure: Au (સોનું)
electron configuration[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s1
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p6 4f14 5d10 6s1
Enhanced બૉહરનો સિદ્ધાંત of Au (સોનું)
Orbital Diagram of Au (સોનું)
oxidation number-3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 5
વિદ્યુતઋણતા
2.4
Electrophilicity Index
2.404200854149471 eV/particle
fundamental state of matter
phase of matterSolid
gaseous state of matter
Boiling Point
3,109.15 K
Melting Point
1,337.33 K
critical pressure
critical temperature
triple point
appearance
color
Gold
appearancemetallic yellow
refractive index
thermodynamic material property
Thermal Conductivity
thermal expansion
0.0000142 1/K
molar heat capacity
25.418 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.129 J/(g⋅K)
heat capacity ratio
electrical properties
typeConductor
electrical conductivity
45 MS/m
electrical resistivity
0.000000022 m Ω
superconductivity
magnetism
typediamagnetic
magnetic susceptibility (Mass)
-0.00000000178 m³/Kg
magnetic susceptibility (Molar)
-0.000000000351 m³/mol
magnetic susceptibility (Volume)
-0.0000344
magnetic ordering
Curie temperature
Néel temperature
structure
Crystal StructureFace Centered Cubic (FCC)
lattice constant
4.08 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, π/2
mechanical property
hardness
2.5 MPa
bulk modulus
220 GPa
shear modulus
27 GPa
Young's modulus
78 GPa
Poisson's ratio
0.44
અવાજની ઝડપ
1,740 m/s
classification
CategoryTransition metals, Transition metals
CAS GroupIB
IUPAC GroupIB
Glawe Number66
Mendeleev Number73
Pettifor Number70
Geochemical Classnoble metal
Goldschmidt classificationsiderophile

other

Gas Basicity
polarizability
36 ± 3 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
allotrope
Neutron cross section
98.7
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.017
quantum number2S1/2
space group225 (Fm_3m)

Isotopes of Gold

Stable Isotopes1
Unstable Isotopes42
Natural Isotopes1

168Au

mass number168
neutron number89
relative atomic mass
168.002716 ± 0.000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
પ્રચક્રણ
nuclear quadrupole moment
શોધની તારીખ
પૅરિટી

decay modeintensity
p (proton emission)

169Au

mass number169
neutron number90
relative atomic mass
168.99808 ± 0.00032 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
પ્રચક્રણ1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
શોધની તારીખ
પૅરિટી+

decay modeintensity
p (proton emission)
α (α emission)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

170Au

mass number170
neutron number91
relative atomic mass
169.996024 ± 0.000216 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
290 ± 50 us
પ્રચક્રણ2
nuclear quadrupole moment
શોધની તારીખ2002
પૅરિટી

decay modeintensity
p (proton emission)89%
α (α emission)11%

171Au

mass number171
neutron number92
relative atomic mass
170.991881533 ± 0.000022236 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
22.3 ± 2.4 us
પ્રચક્રણ1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
શોધની તારીખ1997
પૅરિટી+

decay modeintensity
p (proton emission)100%
α (α emission)

172Au

mass number172
neutron number93
relative atomic mass
171.989996704 ± 0.000060287 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
28 ± 4 ms
પ્રચક્રણ2
nuclear quadrupole moment
શોધની તારીખ1993
પૅરિટી

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
p (proton emission)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

173Au

mass number173
neutron number94
relative atomic mass
172.986224263 ± 0.000024458 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
25.5 ± 0.8 ms
પ્રચક્રણ1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
શોધની તારીખ1983
પૅરિટી+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)86%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

174Au

mass number174
neutron number95
relative atomic mass
173.984908 ± 0.000109 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
139 ± 3 ms
પ્રચક્રણ3
nuclear quadrupole moment
શોધની તારીખ1983
પૅરિટી-

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)90%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

175Au

mass number175
neutron number96
relative atomic mass
174.981316375 ± 0.000041399 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
200 ± 3 ms
પ્રચક્રણ1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
શોધની તારીખ1975
પૅરિટી+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)88%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

176Au

mass number176
neutron number97
relative atomic mass
175.980116925 ± 0.000035625 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
1.05 ± 0.01 s
પ્રચક્રણ3
nuclear quadrupole moment
શોધની તારીખ1975
પૅરિટી-

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)75%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

177Au

mass number177
neutron number98
relative atomic mass
176.976869701 ± 0.0000107 Da
g-factor
2.3 ± 0.1
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
1.501 ± 0.02 s
પ્રચક્રણ1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
શોધની તારીખ1968
પૅરિટી+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)40%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)60%

178Au

mass number178
neutron number99
relative atomic mass
177.976056714 ± 0.000011 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
3.4 ± 0.5 s
પ્રચક્રણ2
nuclear quadrupole moment
શોધની તારીખ1968
પૅરિટી+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)84%
α (α emission)16%

179Au

mass number179
neutron number100
relative atomic mass
178.973173666 ± 0.000012555 Da
g-factor
2.02 ± 0.1
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
7.1 ± 0.3 s
પ્રચક્રણ1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
શોધની તારીખ1968
પૅરિટી+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)78%
α (α emission)22%

180Au

mass number180
neutron number101
relative atomic mass
179.972489738 ± 0.000005108 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
7.9 ± 0.3 s
પ્રચક્રણ1
nuclear quadrupole moment
શોધની તારીખ1977
પૅરિટી+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)99.42%
α (α emission)0.58%

181Au

mass number181
neutron number102
relative atomic mass
180.970079102 ± 0.000021445 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
13.7 ± 1.4 s
પ્રચક્રણ5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
શોધની તારીખ1968
પૅરિટી-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)97.3%
α (α emission)2.7%

182Au

mass number182
neutron number103
relative atomic mass
181.969614433 ± 0.000020143 Da
g-factor
0.65 ± 0.05
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
15.5 ± 0.4 s
પ્રચક્રણ2
nuclear quadrupole moment
શોધની તારીખ1970
પૅરિટી+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)0.13%

183Au

mass number183
neutron number104
relative atomic mass
182.967588106 ± 0.000010116 Da
g-factor
0.784 ± 0.008
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
42.8 ± 1 s
પ્રચક્રણ5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
શોધની તારીખ1968
પૅરિટી-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)99.45%
α (α emission)0.55%

184Au

mass number184
neutron number105
relative atomic mass
183.967451523 ± 0.000023912 Da
g-factor
0.412 ± 0.004
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
20.6 ± 0.9 s
પ્રચક્રણ5
nuclear quadrupole moment
4.7 ± 0.3
શોધની તારીખ1969
પૅરિટી+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)0.013%

185Au

mass number185
neutron number106
relative atomic mass
184.965798871 ± 0.0000028 Da
g-factor
0.864 ± 0.008
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
4.25 ± 0.06 m
પ્રચક્રણ5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
-1.1 ± 0.1
શોધની તારીખ1960
પૅરિટી-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)99.74%
α (α emission)0.26%

186Au

mass number186
neutron number107
relative atomic mass
185.965952703 ± 0.000022509 Da
g-factor
-0.42 ± 0.01
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
10.7 ± 0.5 m
પ્રચક્રણ3
nuclear quadrupole moment
3.1 ± 0.06
શોધની તારીખ1960
પૅરિટી-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)0.0008%

187Au

mass number187
neutron number108
relative atomic mass
186.964542147 ± 0.000024153 Da
g-factor
1.066 ± 0.03
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
8.3 ± 0.2 m
પ્રચક્રણ1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
શોધની તારીખ1955
પૅરિટી+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)

188Au

mass number188
neutron number109
relative atomic mass
187.965247966 ± 0.0000029 Da
g-factor
-0.07 ± 0.03
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
8.84 ± 0.06 m
પ્રચક્રણ1
nuclear quadrupole moment
શોધની તારીખ1955
પૅરિટી-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

189Au

mass number189
neutron number110
relative atomic mass
188.963948286 ± 0.000021558 Da
g-factor
0.984 ± 0.028
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
28.7 ± 0.4 m
પ્રચક્રણ1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
શોધની તારીખ1955
પૅરિટી+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)3%

190Au

mass number190
neutron number111
relative atomic mass
189.964751746 ± 0.0000037 Da
g-factor
-0.065 ± 0.007
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
42.8 ± 1 m
પ્રચક્રણ1
nuclear quadrupole moment
શોધની તારીખ1959
પૅરિટી-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)1%

191Au

mass number191
neutron number112
relative atomic mass
190.963716452 ± 0.000005288 Da
g-factor
0.090933333333333 ± 0.0006
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
3.18 ± 0.08 h
પ્રચક્રણ3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.72 ± 0.02
શોધની તારીખ1954
પૅરિટી+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

192Au

mass number192
neutron number113
relative atomic mass
191.964817615 ± 0.000016991 Da
g-factor
-0.0107 ± 0.0015
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
4.94 ± 0.09 h
પ્રચક્રણ1
nuclear quadrupole moment
-0.228 ± 0.008
શોધની તારીખ1948
પૅરિટી-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

193Au

mass number193
neutron number114
relative atomic mass
192.964138442 ± 0.000009311 Da
g-factor
0.092733333333333 ± 0.00033333333333333
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
17.65 ± 0.15 h
પ્રચક્રણ3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.66 ± 0.02
શોધની તારીખ1948
પૅરિટી+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)

194Au

mass number194
neutron number115
relative atomic mass
193.965419051 ± 0.000002273 Da
g-factor
0.076 ± 0.0013
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
38.02 ± 0.1 h
પ્રચક્રણ1
nuclear quadrupole moment
-0.24 ± 0.009
શોધની તારીખ1948
પૅરિટી-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

195Au

mass number195
neutron number116
relative atomic mass
194.965037823 ± 0.000001201 Da
g-factor
0.098733333333333 ± 0.0004
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
186.01 ± 0.06 d
પ્રચક્રણ3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.607 ± 0.018
શોધની તારીખ1948
પૅરિટી+

decay modeintensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

196Au

mass number196
neutron number117
relative atomic mass
195.966571213 ± 0.000003179 Da
g-factor
0.29415 ± 0.00025
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
6.165 ± 0.011 d
પ્રચક્રણ2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.81 ± 0.07
શોધની તારીખ1937
પૅરિટી-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)93%
β (β decay)7%

197Au

mass number197
neutron number118
relative atomic mass
196.966570103 ± 0.000000581 Da
g-factor
0.0968 ± 0.00013333333333333
natural abundance
100
radioactivitystable isotope
half-lifeNot Radioactive ☢️
પ્રચક્રણ3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.547 ± 0.016
શોધની તારીખ1935
પૅરિટી+

198Au

mass number198
neutron number119
relative atomic mass
197.968243714 ± 0.000000579 Da
g-factor
0.29555 ± 0.0004
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
2.69464 ± 0.00014 d
પ્રચક્રણ2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.64 ± 0.019
શોધની તારીખ1937
પૅરિટી-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

199Au

mass number199
neutron number120
relative atomic mass
198.968766573 ± 0.000000581 Da
g-factor
0.18033333333333 ± 0.00053333333333333
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
3.139 ± 0.007 d
પ્રચક્રણ3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.51 ± 0.016
શોધની તારીખ1937
પૅરિટી+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

200Au

mass number200
neutron number121
relative atomic mass
199.970756558 ± 0.000028681 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
48.4 ± 0.3 m
પ્રચક્રણ1
nuclear quadrupole moment
શોધની તારીખ1951
પૅરિટી-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

201Au

mass number201
neutron number122
relative atomic mass
200.971657678 ± 0.000003455 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
26 ± 0.8 m
પ્રચક્રણ3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
શોધની તારીખ1952
પૅરિટી+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

202Au

mass number202
neutron number123
relative atomic mass
201.973856 ± 0.000025 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
28.4 ± 1.2 s
પ્રચક્રણ1
nuclear quadrupole moment
શોધની તારીખ1967
પૅરિટી-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

203Au

mass number203
neutron number124
relative atomic mass
202.975154492 ± 0.000003309 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
60 ± 6 s
પ્રચક્રણ3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
શોધની તારીખ1952
પૅરિટી+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

204Au

mass number204
neutron number125
relative atomic mass
203.97811 ± 0.000215 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
38.3 ± 1.3 s
પ્રચક્રણ2
nuclear quadrupole moment
શોધની તારીખ1972
પૅરિટી-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

205Au

mass number205
neutron number126
relative atomic mass
204.980064 ± 0.000215 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
32 ± 1.4 s
પ્રચક્રણ3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
શોધની તારીખ1994
પૅરિટી+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

206Au

mass number206
neutron number127
relative atomic mass
205.984766 ± 0.000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
47 ± 11 s
પ્રચક્રણ6
nuclear quadrupole moment
શોધની તારીખ2009
પૅરિટી+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

207Au

mass number207
neutron number128
relative atomic mass
206.988577 ± 0.000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
પ્રચક્રણ3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
શોધની તારીખ2010
પૅરિટી+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

208Au

mass number208
neutron number129
relative atomic mass
207.993655 ± 0.000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
પ્રચક્રણ6
nuclear quadrupole moment
શોધની તારીખ2010
પૅરિટી+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

209Au

mass number209
neutron number130
relative atomic mass
208.997606 ± 0.000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
પ્રચક્રણ3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
શોધની તારીખ2010
પૅરિટી+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

210Au

mass number210
neutron number131
relative atomic mass
210.002877 ± 0.000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
પ્રચક્રણ6
nuclear quadrupole moment
શોધની તારીખ2010
પૅરિટી+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
Gold-crystals

ઈતિહાસ

શોધક અથવા સંશોધકKnown to the ancients.
શોધનું સ્થળ
શોધની તારીખ
etymologyAnglo-Saxon: geolo (yellow); symbol from Latin: aurum (shining dawn).
ઉચ્ચારGOLD (અંગ્રેજી)

source

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
0.004 mg/kg
natural abundance (ocean)
0.000004 mg/L
natural abundance (માનવ શરીર)
0.00001 %
natural abundance (ઉલ્કા)
0.000017 %
natural abundance (સૂર્ય)
0.0000001 %
Abundance in Universe
0.00000006 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s1.5239
2p4.4868
2s20.6302
3d13.4917
3p22.297
3s23.2372
4d37.472
4f38.3504
4p35.4532
4s34.5868
5d58.8735
5p53.83
5s51.6725
6s68.062