Beryllium

Beryllium (Be)

Grey metallic element of group 2 of the periodic table. Is toxic and can cause severe lung diseases and dermatitis. Shows high covalent character. It was isolated independently by F. Wohler and A.A. Bussy in 1828.
Atomic Number4
Atomic Weight9.0121831
Mass Number9
Group2
Period2
Blocks
Protons4 p+
Neutrons5 n0
Electrons4 e-
Beryllium nuggets 2.jpg Electron shell de 004 Beryllium.svg Animated Bohr Model of Be (Beryllium) Enhanced Bohr Model of Be (Beryllium) Bohr Model: Be (Beryllium) Orbital Diagram of Be (Beryllium)

Properties

Atomic Radius
105 pm
Molar Volume
Covalent Radius
102 pm
Metallic Radius
89 pm
Ionic Radius
16 pm
Crystal Radius
30 pm
Van der Waals Radius
153 pm
Density
1.85 g/cm³
Energy
Proton Affinity
Electron Affinity
Ionization Energy
9.322699 eV/particle
Heat of Vaporization
309 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
12.21 kJ/mol
Heat of Formation
324 kJ/mol
Electrons
Electron Shells2, 2
Valence Electrons2
Electron Configuration[He] 2s2
Oxidation States0, 1, 2
Electronegativity
1.57
Electrophilicity
0.5110145863657444 eV/particle
Phases
PhaseSolid
Gas Phase
Boiling Point
2,741.15 K
Melting Point
1,560.15 K
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
5,205.15 K
Triple Point
Visual
Color
Slate Gray
Appearancewhite-gray metallic
Refractive Index
Thermodynamic Properties
Thermal Conductivity
Thermal Expansion
0.0000113 1/K
Molar Heat Capacity
16.443 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
1.825 J/(g⋅K)
Heat Capacity Ratio (Adiabatic Index)
Electrical Properties
TypeConductor
Electrical Conductivity
25 MS/m
Electrical Resistivity
0.00000003999999999998 m Ω
Superconducting Point
0.026 K
Magnetism
Typediamagnetic
Magnetic Susceptibility (Mass)
-0.0000000126 m³/Kg
Magnetic Susceptibility (Molar)
-0.0000000001136 m³/mol
Magnetic Susceptibility (Volume)
-0.00002328
Magnetic Ordering
Curie Point
Neel Point
Structure
Crystal StructureSimple Hexagonal (HEX)
Lattice Constant
2.29 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, 2 π/3
Mechanical Properties
Hardness
5.5 MPa
Bulk Modulus
130 GPa
Shear Modulus
132 GPa
Young Modulus
287 GPa
Poisson Ratio
0.032
Speed of Sound
13,000 m/s
Classification
CategoryAlkaline earth metals, Alkaline earth metals
CAS GroupIIA
IUPAC GroupIIA
Glawe Number77
Mendeleev Number75
Pettifor Number77
Geochemical Classalkaline earth metal
Goldschmidt Classlitophile
Other
Gas Basicity
Dipole Polarizability
37.74 ± 0.03 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
227 a₀
Allotropes
Neutron Cross Section
0.0092
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.00003
Quantum Numbers1S0
Space Group194 (P63/mmc)

Isotopes of Beryllium

Stable Isotopes1
Unstable Isotopes11
Radioactive Isotopes11

5Be

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
5.03987 ± 0.00215 Da
Mass Number5
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year
Parity+

5Be Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
p (proton emission)%

6Be

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
6.019726409 ± 0.000005848 Da
Mass Number6
G-Factor
0
Half Life
5 ± 0.3 zs
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1958
Parity+

6Be Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
2p (2-proton emission)100%

7Be

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
7.016928714 ± 0.000000076 Da
Mass Number7
G-Factor
Half Life
53.22 ± 0.06 d
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1938
Parity-

7Be Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

8Be

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
8.005305102 ± 0.000000037 Da
Mass Number8
G-Factor
0
Half Life
81.9 ± 3.7 as
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1932
Parity+

8Be Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%

9Be

Abundance
100
Relative Atomic Mass
9.012183062 ± 0.000000082 Da
Mass Number9
G-Factor
-0.78495333333333 ± 0.0000033333333333333
Half Life
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.0529 ± 0.0004
Discovery Year1921
Parity-

10Be

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
10.013534692 ± 0.000000086 Da
Mass Number10
G-Factor
0
Half Life
1.387 ± 0.012 My
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1935
Parity+

10Be Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

11Be

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
11.02166108 ± 0.000000255 Da
Mass Number11
G-Factor
-3.3632 ± 0.0016
Half Life
13.76 ± 0.07 s
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1958
Parity+

11Be Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
βα (β-delayed α emission)3.3%
B-p0.0013%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%

12Be

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
12.026922082 ± 0.000002048 Da
Mass Number12
G-Factor
0
Half Life
21.46 ± 0.05 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1966
Parity+

12Be Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)0.5%

13Be

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
13.036134506 ± 0.000010929 Da
Mass Number13
G-Factor
Half Life
1 ± 0.7 zs
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1983
Parity-

13Be Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
n (neutron emission)%

14Be

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
14.04289292 ± 0.00014197 Da
Mass Number14
G-Factor
0
Half Life
4.53 ± 0.27 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1973
Parity+

14Be Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)86%
2n (2-neutron emission)5%
β t (β-delayed triton emission)0.02%
βα (β-delayed α emission)0.004%

15Be

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
15.053490215 ± 0.00017799 Da
Mass Number15
G-Factor
Half Life
790 ± 270 ys
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2013
Parity+

15Be Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
n (neutron emission)100%

16Be

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
16.061672036 ± 0.00017799 Da
Mass Number16
G-Factor
0
Half Life
650 ± 130 ys
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2012
Parity+

16Be Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
2n (2-neutron emission)100%

History

Louis-Nicolas Vauquelin discovered beryllium in the oxide form in both beryl and emeralds in 1798. Friedrich Wöhler and Antoine Bussy independently isolated beryllium in 1828 by the chemical reaction of metallic potassium with beryllium chloride. The first commercially-successful process for producing beryllium was developed in 1932 by Alfred Stock and Hans Goldschmidt. From the Greek word beryllos, beryl

DiscoverersFredrich Wöhler, A.A.Bussy
Discovery LocationGermany/France
Discovery Year1798
Etymology (Name Origin)Greek: beryllos, "beryl" (a mineral).
Pronunciationbeh-RIL-i-em (English)
Beryllium and its salts are toxic and should be handled with the greatest of care
Emerald is a naturally occurring compound of beryllium

Uses

Beryllium is used in nuclear reactors as a reflector or moderator. Beryllium metal is used for lightweight structural components in the defense and aerospace industries in high-speed aircraft, guided missiles, space vehicles and satellites. Unlike most metals, beryllium is virtually transparent to x-rays and hence it is used in radiation windows for x-ray tubes. Its ability to absorb large amounts of heat makes it useful in spacecraft, missiles, aircraft, etc. Emeralds are beryl crystals with chromium traces giving them their green color.

Sources

Found mostly in minerals like beryl [AlBe3(Si6O18)] and chrysoberyl (Al2BeO4). Pure beryllium is obtained by chemically reducing beryl mineral. Also by electrolysis of beryllium chloride.

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
2.8 mg/kg
Abundance in Oceans
0.0000056 mg/L
Abundance in Human Body
0.00000004 %
Abundance in Meteor
0.0000029 %
Abundance in Sun
0.00000001 %
Abundance in Universe
0.0000001 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s0.3152
2s2.088