Berkelium

Berkelium (Bk)

Radioactive metallic transuranic element. Belongs to actinoid series. Eight known isotopes, the most common Bk-247, has a half-life of 1.4*10^3 years. First produced by Glenn T. Seaborg and associates in 1949 by bombarding americium-241 with alpha particles.
Atomic Number97
Atomic Weight247
Mass Number235
Group
Period7
Blockf
Protons97 p+
Neutrons138 n0
Electrons97 e-
Berkelium metal.jpg Animated Bohr Model Enhanced Bohr Model Bohr Model Orbital Diagram

Properties

Atomic Radius
Atomic Volume
Covalent Radius
168 pm
Metallic Radius
Ionic Radius
96 pm
Crystal Radius
110.00000000000001 pm
Van der Waals radius
244 pm
Density
14.78 g/cm³
Boiling Point
Melting Point
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 32, 27, 8, 2
Electronegativity
Electrophilicity
Proton Affinity
Electron Affinity
Ionization Potential
Heat of Vaporization
Heat of Fusion
Heat of Formation
310 kJ/mol
Molar Heat Capacity
Specific Heat Capacity
Thermal Conductivity
Gas Basicity
Dipole Polarizability
125 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
Oxidation States3, 4
Color
Colorless
Crystal StructureSimple Hexagonal ()
Lattice Constant
Bulk Modulus
Electrical Resistivity
Electron Configuration[Rn] 5f9 7s2
Magnetic Ordering
Magnetic Susceptibility
PhaseSolid
Poisson Ratio
Shear Modulus
Young's Modulus
Allotropes
Alternate Names
Adiabatic Index
Appearance
Electric Conductivity
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
Curie Point
Electrical
Hardness
Magnetic Susceptibility
Magnetic
Neel Point
Neutron Cross Section
Neutron Mass Absorption
Gas Phase
Quantum Numbers
Refractive Index
Space Group
Speed of Sound
Superconducting Point
Thermal Expansion
Valence Electrons
Classification
CategoryActinides, Actinides
CAS Group
IUPAC Group
Glawe Number41
Mendeleev Number30
Pettifor Number40
Geochemical Class
Goldschmidt Classsynthetic
Radioactivity
RadioactiveYes ☢️
Decay Mode
Half-Life
Lifetime
Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
Abundance in Oceans
Abundance in Human Body
Abundance in Meteor
Abundance in Sun
Abundance in Universena

Isotopes of Berkelium

Stable Isotopes
Unstable Isotopes
235Bk 236Bk 237Bk 238Bk 239Bk 240Bk 241Bk 242Bk 243Bk 244Bk 245Bk 246Bk 247Bk 248Bk 249Bk 250Bk 251Bk 252Bk 253Bk 254Bk

History

Berkelium was discovered by Glenn T. Seaborg, Albert Ghiorso and Stanley G. Thompson in 1949 at the University of California, Berkeley. It was produced by the bombardment of americium with alpha particles. Berkelium was isolated in greater quantities for the first time by Burris Cunningham and Stanley Thompson in 1958. Named after Berkeley, California, the city of its discovery

DiscoverersG.T.Seaborg, S.G.Tompson, A.Ghiorso
Discovery LocationUnited States
Discovery Year1949
Name OriginNamed after Berkeley, California the city of its discovery.
Berkelium is harmful due to its radioactivity
Just over one gram of berkelium has been produced in the United States since 1967

Uses

Berkelium is mainly used for scientific research purposes. Berkelium-249 is a common target nuclide to prepare still heavier transuranic elements and transactinides, such as lawrencium, rutherfordium and bohrium. It is also useful as a source of the isotope californium-249. It has no significant commercial applications.

Sources

Some compounds have been made and studied. Made by bombarding americium with alpha particles.