Kalsium

Kalsium (Ca)

chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20
Atomic Number20
Atomic Weight40.078
Nombor jisim40
Group2
Period4
Blocks
proton20 p+
neutron20 n0
Elektron20 e-
Animated Model Bohr of Ca (Kalsium)

Sifat Fizikal

Jejari Atom
180 pm
molar volume
Jejari kovalen
171 pm
Metallic Radius
174 pm
ionic radius
100 pm
Crystal Radius
114 pm
Jejari van der Waals
231 pm
ketumpatan
1.54 g/cm³
Atomic Radii Of The Elements: Kalsium0102030405060708090100110120130140150160170180190200210220230240pmJejari AtomJejari KovalenMetallic RadiusJejari van der Waals

Sifat Kimia

tenaga
proton affinity
Pertalian elektron
0.02455 eV/particle
ionization energy
6.1131552 eV/particle
ionization energy of Ca (Kalsium)
Entalpi pengewapan
153.6 kJ/mol
entalpi pelakuran
9.2 kJ/mol
standard enthalpy of formation
177.8 kJ/mol
Elektron
Petala elektron2, 8, 8, 2
Model Bohr: Ca (Kalsium)
Elektron valens2
Teori ion Lewis: Ca (Kalsium)
tatarajah elektron[Ar] 4s2
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2
Enhanced Model Bohr of Ca (Kalsium)
Orbital Diagram of Ca (Kalsium)
Keadaan pengoksidaan1, 2
Keelektronegatifan
1
Electrophilicity Index
0.7734001442996138 eV/particle
keadaan jirim asas
fasa jirimSolid
gaseous state of matter
Boiling Point
1,757.15 K
Melting Point
1,115.15 K
critical pressure
critical temperature
triple point
rupa
warna
Silver
rupa
indeks biasan
sifat bahan
Thermal Conductivity
Pengembangan terma
0.0000223 1/K
molar heat capacity
25.929 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.647 J/(g⋅K)
heat capacity ratio
electrical properties
typeConductor
Kekonduksian elektrik
29 MS/m
Kerintangan dan kekonduksian elektrik
0.00000003399999999999 m Ω
Kesuperkonduksian
kemagnetan
typeparamagnetic
magnetic susceptibility (Mass)
0.0000000138 m³/Kg
magnetic susceptibility (Molar)
0.0000000005531 m³/mol
magnetic susceptibility (Volume)
0.00002139
magnetic ordering
Suhu Curie
Néel temperature
struktur
Crystal StructureFace Centered Cubic (FCC)
lattice constant
5.58 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, π/2
mechanical property
hardness
1.75 MPa
Modulus pukal
17 GPa
shear modulus
7.4 GPa
Young's modulus
20 GPa
Nisbah Poisson
0.31
Kelajuan bunyi
3,810 m/s
pengelasan
CategoryAlkaline earth metals, Alkaline earth metals
CAS GroupIIA
IUPAC GroupIIA
Glawe Number16
Mendeleev Number7
Pettifor Number16
Geochemical Classmajor
Goldschmidt classificationlitophile

other

Gas Basicity
polarizability
160.8 ± 4 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
2,163 a₀
allotrope
Neutron cross section
0.43
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.00037
Nombor kuantum1S0
space group225 (Fm_3m)

Isotopes of Calcium

Stable Isotopes3
Unstable Isotopes26
Natural Isotopes6
Isotopic Composition4096.94%4096.94%442.09%442.09%420.65%420.65%430.14%430.14%460.00%460.00%480.19%480.19%

33Ca

Nombor jisim33
nombor neutron13
jisim atom relatif
33.033312 ± 0.000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
p (proton emission)

34Ca

Nombor jisim34
nombor neutron14
jisim atom relatif
34.015985 ± 0.000322 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
2p (2-proton emission)

35Ca

Nombor jisim35
nombor neutron15
jisim atom relatif
35.005572 ± 0.000215 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
25.7 ± 0.2 ms
Spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1985
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)95.8%
2p (2-proton emission)4.2%

36Ca

Nombor jisim36
nombor neutron16
jisim atom relatif
35.993074388 ± 0.000042941 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
100.9 ± 1.3 ms
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1977
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)51.2%

37Ca

Nombor jisim37
nombor neutron17
jisim atom relatif
36.985897849 ± 0.00000068 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
181 ± 0.9 ms
Spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1964
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)76.8%

38Ca

Nombor jisim38
nombor neutron18
jisim atom relatif
37.976319223 ± 0.000000208 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
443.7 ± 0.25 ms
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1966
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

39Ca

Nombor jisim39
nombor neutron19
jisim atom relatif
38.970710811 ± 0.00000064 Da
g-factor
0.68093333333333 ± 0.00010666666666667
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
860.3 ± 0.8 ms
Spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.038 ± 0.003
tarikh penemuan1943
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

40Ca

Nombor jisim40
nombor neutron20
jisim atom relatif
39.96259085 ± 0.000000022 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
96.941 ± 0.156
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1922
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
+ (double β+ decay)

41Ca

Nombor jisim41
nombor neutron21
jisim atom relatif
40.962277905 ± 0.000000147 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
99.4 ± 1.5 ky
Spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
-0.0665 ± 0.0018
tarikh penemuan1939
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
ϵ (electron capture)100%

42Ca

Nombor jisim42
nombor neutron22
jisim atom relatif
41.95861778 ± 0.000000159 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
0.647 ± 0.023
Reputan radioaktifIsotop stabil
setengah hayatNot Radioactive ☢️
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1934
parity+

43Ca

Nombor jisim43
nombor neutron23
jisim atom relatif
42.958766381 ± 0.000000244 Da
g-factor
-0.37638 ± 0.000017142857142857
natural abundance
0.135 ± 0.01
Reputan radioaktifIsotop stabil
setengah hayatNot Radioactive ☢️
Spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
-0.0408 ± 0.0008
tarikh penemuan1934
parity-

44Ca

Nombor jisim44
nombor neutron24
jisim atom relatif
43.955481489 ± 0.000000348 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
2.086 ± 0.11
Reputan radioaktifIsotop stabil
setengah hayatNot Radioactive ☢️
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1922
parity+

45Ca

Nombor jisim45
nombor neutron25
jisim atom relatif
44.95618627 ± 0.000000392 Da
g-factor
-0.37897142857143 ± 0.00037142857142857
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
162.61 ± 0.09 d
Spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.038 ± 0.012
tarikh penemuan1940
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

46Ca

Nombor jisim46
nombor neutron26
jisim atom relatif
45.953687726 ± 0.000002398 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
0.004 ± 0.003
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1938
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
(double β decay)

47Ca

Nombor jisim47
nombor neutron27
jisim atom relatif
46.954541134 ± 0.000002384 Da
g-factor
-0.40182857142857 ± 0.00031428571428571
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
4.536 ± 0.003 d
Spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.084 ± 0.006
tarikh penemuan1951
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

48Ca

Nombor jisim48
nombor neutron28
jisim atom relatif
47.952522654 ± 0.000000018 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
0.187 ± 0.021
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
56 ± 10 Ey
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1938
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
(double β decay)
β (β decay)

49Ca

Nombor jisim49
nombor neutron29
jisim atom relatif
48.955662625 ± 0.00000019 Da
g-factor
-0.91993333333333 ± 0.00053333333333333
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
8.718 ± 0.006 m
Spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
-0.036 ± 0.003
tarikh penemuan1950
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

50Ca

Nombor jisim50
nombor neutron30
jisim atom relatif
49.957499215 ± 0.0000017 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
13.45 ± 0.05 s
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1964
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

51Ca

Nombor jisim51
nombor neutron31
jisim atom relatif
50.960995663 ± 0.00000056 Da
g-factor
-0.69973333333333 ± 0.00073333333333333
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
10 ± 0.8 s
Spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.036 ± 0.012
tarikh penemuan1980
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

52Ca

Nombor jisim52
nombor neutron32
jisim atom relatif
51.963213646 ± 0.00000072 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
4.6 ± 0.3 s
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1985
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)2%

53Ca

Nombor jisim53
nombor neutron33
jisim atom relatif
52.968451 ± 0.000047 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
461 ± 90 ms
Spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1983
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)40%

54Ca

Nombor jisim54
nombor neutron34
jisim atom relatif
53.972989 ± 0.000052 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
90 ± 6 ms
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1997
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

55Ca

Nombor jisim55
nombor neutron35
jisim atom relatif
54.979978 ± 0.000172 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
22 ± 2 ms
Spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1997
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

56Ca

Nombor jisim56
nombor neutron36
jisim atom relatif
55.985496 ± 0.000268 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
11 ± 2 ms
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1997
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

57Ca

Nombor jisim57
nombor neutron37
jisim atom relatif
56.992958 ± 0.000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan2009
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

58Ca

Nombor jisim58
nombor neutron38
jisim atom relatif
57.998357 ± 0.000537 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan2009
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

59Ca

Nombor jisim59
nombor neutron39
jisim atom relatif
59.006237 ± 0.000644 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan2018
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

60Ca

Nombor jisim60
nombor neutron40
jisim atom relatif
60.011809 ± 0.000751 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan2018
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

61Ca

Nombor jisim61
nombor neutron41
jisim atom relatif
61.020408 ± 0.000859 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)
Calcium 1

sejarah

penemu atau perekaSir Humphrey Davy
tempat penemuanEngland
tarikh penemuan1808
EtimologiLatin: calx, calcis (lime).
sebutanKAL-si-em (Inggeris)

sumber

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
41,500 mg/kg
natural abundance (lautan)
412 mg/L
natural abundance (Tubuh manusia)
1.4 %
natural abundance (Meteoroid)
1.1 %
natural abundance (Matahari)
0.007 %
Abundance in Universe
0.007 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s0.527
2p3.9586
2s6.2236
3p11.3417
3s10.3985
4s15.602