Cadmium

Cadmium (Cd)

Soft bluish metal belonging to group 12 of the periodic table. Extremely toxic even in low concentrations. Chemically similar to zinc, but lends itself to more complex compounds. Discovered in 1817 by F. Stromeyer.
Atomic Number48
Atomic Weight112.414
Mass Number114
Group12
Period5
Blockd
Protons48 p+
Neutrons66 n0
Electrons48 e-
Cadmium-crystal bar.jpg Animated Bohr Model of Cd (Cadmium) Enhanced Bohr Model of Cd (Cadmium) Bohr Model: Cd (Cadmium) Orbital Diagram of Cd (Cadmium)

Properties

Atomic Radius
155 pm
Molar Volume
Covalent Radius
136 pm
Metallic Radius
138 pm
Ionic Radius
78 pm
Crystal Radius
92 pm
Van der Waals Radius
218 pm
Density
8.69 g/cm³
Energy
Proton Affinity
Electron Affinity
Ionization Energy
8.993822 eV/particle
Heat of Vaporization
59.1 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
6.11 kJ/mol
Heat of Formation
111.8 kJ/mol
Electrons
Electron Shells2, 8, 18, 18, 2
Valence Electrons2
Electron Configuration[Kr] 4d10 5s2
Oxidation States-2, 1, 2
Electronegativity
1.69
Electrophilicity
Phases
PhaseSolid
Gas Phase
Boiling Point
1,040.15 K
Melting Point
594.219 K
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
Triple Point
Visual
Color
Silver
Appearancesilvery bluish-gray metallic
Refractive Index
Thermodynamic Properties
Thermal Conductivity
96.9 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion
0.0000308 1/K
Molar Heat Capacity
26.02 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.232 J/(g⋅K)
Heat Capacity Ratio (Adiabatic Index)
Electrical Properties
TypeConductor
Electrical Conductivity
14 MS/m
Electrical Resistivity
0.00000007000000000002 m Ω
Superconducting Point
0.517 K
Magnetism
Typediamagnetic
Magnetic Susceptibility (Mass)
-0.0000000023 m³/Kg
Magnetic Susceptibility (Molar)
-0.000000000259 m³/mol
Magnetic Susceptibility (Volume)
-0.0000199
Magnetic Ordering
Curie Point
Neel Point
Structure
Crystal StructureSimple Hexagonal (HEX)
Lattice Constant
2.98 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, 2 π/3
Mechanical Properties
Hardness
2 MPa
Bulk Modulus
42 GPa
Shear Modulus
19 GPa
Young Modulus
50 GPa
Poisson Ratio
0.3
Speed of Sound
2,310 m/s
Classification
CategoryTransition metals, Transition metals
CAS GroupIIB
IUPAC GroupIIB
Glawe Number75
Mendeleev Number78
Pettifor Number75
Geochemical Class
Goldschmidt Classchalcophile
Other
Gas Basicity
Dipole Polarizability
46 ± 2 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
Allotropes
Neutron Cross Section
2,450
Neutron Mass Absorption
1.4
Quantum Numbers1S0
Space Group194 (P63/mmc)

Isotopes of Cadmium

Stable Isotopes8
Unstable Isotopes34
Radioactive Isotopes35

94Cd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
93.956586 ± 0.000537 Da
Mass Number94
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2016
Parity+

94Cd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)%

95Cd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
94.949483 ± 0.000607 Da
Mass Number95
G-Factor
Half Life
32 ± 3 ms
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2011
Parity+

95Cd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)4.6%

96Cd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
95.940341 ± 0.00044 Da
Mass Number96
G-Factor
0
Half Life
1,003 ± 47 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2008
Parity+

96Cd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)1.6%

97Cd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
96.934799343 ± 0.000451073 Da
Mass Number97
G-Factor
Half Life
1.16 ± 0.05 s
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1978
Parity+

97Cd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)7.4%

98Cd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
97.927389315 ± 0.000055605 Da
Mass Number98
G-Factor
0
Half Life
9.29 ± 0.1 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1978
Parity+

98Cd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)0.029%

99Cd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
98.924925845 ± 0.0000017 Da
Mass Number99
G-Factor
Half Life
17 ± 1 s
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1978
Parity+

99Cd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)0.21%
β+α (β+-delayed α emission)1%

100Cd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
99.920348829 ± 0.0000018 Da
Mass Number100
G-Factor
0
Half Life
49.1 ± 0.5 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1970
Parity+

100Cd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

101Cd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
100.918586209 ± 0.0000016 Da
Mass Number101
G-Factor
-0.3588 ± 0.00016
Half Life
1.36 ± 0.05 m
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
-0.177 ± 0.007
Discovery Year1969
Parity+

101Cd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

102Cd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
101.914481797 ± 0.000001784 Da
Mass Number102
G-Factor
0
Half Life
5.5 ± 0.5 m
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1969
Parity+

102Cd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

103Cd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
102.913416922 ± 0.000001943 Da
Mass Number103
G-Factor
-0.33944 ± 0.00016
Half Life
7.3 ± 0.1 m
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
-0.007 ± 0.003
Discovery Year1960
Parity+

103Cd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

104Cd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
103.909856228 ± 0.000001795 Da
Mass Number104
G-Factor
0
Half Life
57.7 ± 1 m
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1955
Parity+

104Cd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

105Cd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
104.909463893 ± 0.000001494 Da
Mass Number105
G-Factor
-0.29528 ± 0.00016
Half Life
55.5 ± 0.4 m
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.377 ± 0.015
Discovery Year1950
Parity+

105Cd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

106Cd

Abundance
1.245 ± 0.022
Relative Atomic Mass
105.906459791 ± 0.000001184 Da
Mass Number106
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1935
Parity+

106Cd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
+ (double β+ decay)%

107Cd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
106.906612049 ± 0.000001782 Da
Mass Number107
G-Factor
-0.24564 ± 0.00012
Half Life
6.5 ± 0.02 h
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.6 ± 0.02
Discovery Year1946
Parity+

107Cd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

108Cd

Abundance
0.888 ± 0.011
Relative Atomic Mass
107.904183588 ± 0.000001205 Da
Mass Number108
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1935
Parity+

108Cd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
+ (double β+ decay)%

109Cd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
108.904986697 ± 0.000001649 Da
Mass Number109
G-Factor
-0.33064 ± 0.00016
Half Life
461.3 ± 0.5 d
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.6 ± 0.03
Discovery Year1950
Parity+

109Cd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

110Cd

Abundance
12.47 ± 0.061
Relative Atomic Mass
109.90300747 ± 0.000000407 Da
Mass Number110
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1925
Parity+

111Cd

Abundance
12.795 ± 0.012
Relative Atomic Mass
110.904183776 ± 0.000000383 Da
Mass Number111
G-Factor
-1.188 ± 0.0006
Half Life
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1925
Parity+

112Cd

Abundance
24.109 ± 0.007
Relative Atomic Mass
111.902763896 ± 0.000000268 Da
Mass Number112
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1925
Parity+

113Cd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
12.227 ± 0.007
Relative Atomic Mass
112.904408105 ± 0.000000262 Da
Mass Number113
G-Factor
-1.2426 ± 0.0006
Half Life
8.04 ± 0.05 Py
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1925
Parity+

113Cd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

114Cd

Abundance
28.754 ± 0.081
Relative Atomic Mass
113.903364998 ± 0.000000296 Da
Mass Number114
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1925
Parity+

114Cd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
(double β decay)%

115Cd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
114.905437426 ± 0.000000699 Da
Mass Number115
G-Factor
-1.2966 ± 0.0004
Half Life
53.46 ± 0.05 h
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1939
Parity+

115Cd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

116Cd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
7.512 ± 0.054
Relative Atomic Mass
115.90476323 ± 0.000000172 Da
Mass Number116
G-Factor
0
Half Life
26.9 ± 0.9 Ey
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1925
Parity+

116Cd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
(double β decay)100%

117Cd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
116.907226039 ± 0.000001087 Da
Mass Number117
G-Factor
-1.485 ± 0.0008
Half Life
2.503 ± 0.005 h
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1939
Parity+

117Cd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

118Cd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
117.906921956 ± 0.000021471 Da
Mass Number118
G-Factor
0
Half Life
50.3 ± 0.2 m
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1961
Parity+

118Cd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

119Cd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
118.909847052 ± 0.000040467 Da
Mass Number119
G-Factor
-1.8376 ± 0.0008
Half Life
2.69 ± 0.02 m
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1961
Parity+

119Cd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

120Cd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
119.909868065 ± 0.000004 Da
Mass Number120
G-Factor
0
Half Life
50.8 ± 0.21 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1973
Parity+

120Cd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

121Cd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
120.91296366 ± 0.000002085 Da
Mass Number121
G-Factor
0.41733333333333 ± 0.00046666666666667
Half Life
13.5 ± 0.3 s
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1965
Parity+

121Cd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

122Cd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
121.91345905 ± 0.000002468 Da
Mass Number122
G-Factor
0
Half Life
5.24 ± 0.03 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1973
Parity+

122Cd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

123Cd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
122.91689246 ± 0.000002894 Da
Mass Number123
G-Factor
0.52566666666667 ± 0.00046666666666667
Half Life
2.1 ± 0.02 s
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1983
Parity+

123Cd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

124Cd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
123.917659772 ± 0.0000028 Da
Mass Number124
G-Factor
0
Half Life
1.25 ± 0.02 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1974
Parity+

124Cd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

125Cd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
124.92125759 ± 0.0000031 Da
Mass Number125
G-Factor
0.57273333333333 ± 0.00046666666666667
Half Life
680 ± 40 ms
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.209 ± 0.01
Discovery Year1986
Parity+

125Cd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

126Cd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
125.92243029 ± 0.000002473 Da
Mass Number126
G-Factor
0
Half Life
512 ± 5 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1978
Parity+

126Cd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

127Cd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
126.926203291 ± 0.000006656 Da
Mass Number127
G-Factor
0.58473333333333 ± 0.00053333333333333
Half Life
480 ± 100 ms
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.239 ± 0.011
Discovery Year1986
Parity+

127Cd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%

128Cd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
127.927816778 ± 0.000006905 Da
Mass Number128
G-Factor
0
Half Life
246 ± 2 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1986
Parity+

128Cd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%

129Cd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
128.932235597 ± 0.0000057 Da
Mass Number129
G-Factor
-0.12821818181818 ± 0.00010909090909091
Half Life
147 ± 3 ms
Spin11/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.132 ± 0.009
Discovery Year2003
Parity-

129Cd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%

130Cd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
129.934387563 ± 0.000024 Da
Mass Number130
G-Factor
0
Half Life
126.8 ± 1.8 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1986
Parity+

130Cd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)3.5%

131Cd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
130.94072774 ± 0.000020653 Da
Mass Number131
G-Factor
Half Life
98 ± 2 ms
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2000
Parity-

131Cd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)3.5%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

132Cd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
131.945823136 ± 0.000064485 Da
Mass Number132
G-Factor
0
Half Life
84 ± 5 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2000
Parity+

132Cd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)60%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

133Cd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
132.952614 ± 0.000215 Da
Mass Number133
G-Factor
Half Life
61 ± 6 ms
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2010
Parity-

133Cd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

134Cd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
133.957638 ± 0.000322 Da
Mass Number134
G-Factor
0
Half Life
65 ± 15 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2015
Parity+

134Cd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

135Cd

Abundance
Relative Atomic Mass
134.964766 ± 0.000429 Da
Mass Number135
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year
Parity-

135Cd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%

History

Cadmium was discovered by German chemist Friedrich Stromeyer in 1817 as an impurity in zinc carbonate. Stromeyer noted that some impure samples of calamine (zinc carbonate) changed color when heated but pure calamine did not. Cadmium was independently discovered by German chemist Karl Hermann in 1818. From the Latin word cadmia, Greek kadmeia - the ancient name for calamine, zinc carbonate

DiscoverersFredrich Stromeyer
Discovery LocationGermany
Discovery Year1817
Etymology (Name Origin)Greek: kadmeia (ancient name for calamine (zinc oxide)).
PronunciationKAD-me-em (English)
Cadmium and its compounds are highly toxic
Cadmium is a soft metal which is easily cut with a knife

Uses

Cadmium is a key component in battery production. It is also is used in electroplating. Cadmium oxide is used in black and white television phosphors and in the blue and green phosphors for color television picture tubes. Cadmium is used as a barrier to control neutrons in nuclear fission. Used in nickel-cadmium batteries. Also in electroplating steel and in the manufacture of berings. Its compounds are found in paint pigments and a wide variety of intense colors. Boiling cadmium gives off a weird, yellow-colored vapor that is poisonous.

Sources

Obtained as a by product of zinc refining.

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
0.15 mg/kg
Abundance in Oceans
0.00011 mg/L
Abundance in Human Body
0.00007 %
Abundance in Meteor
0.000044 %
Abundance in Sun
0.0000006 %
Abundance in Universe
0.0000002 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s0.9744
2p4.091
2s12.6142
3d14.3931
3p17.3085
3s17.1588
4d32.1232
4p28.5888
4s27.1308
5s39.808