Cerium

Cerium (Ce)

Silvery metallic element, belongs to the lanthanoids. Four natural isotopes exist, and fifteen radioactive isotopes have been identified. Used in some rare-earth alloys. The oxidized form is used in the glass industry. Discovered by Martin .H. Klaproth in 1803.
Atomic Number58
Atomic Weight140.116
Mass Number140
Group
Period6
Blockf
Protons58 p+
Neutrons82 n0
Electrons58 e-
CE2k2g.jpg Animated Bohr Model Enhanced Bohr Model Bohr Model Orbital Diagram

Properties

Atomic Radius
185 pm
Atomic Volume
Covalent Radius
163 pm
Metallic Radius
Ionic Radius
101 pm
Crystal Radius
114.99999999999999 pm
Van der Waals radius
242 pm
Density
6.77 g/cm³
Boiling Point
3,699 K
Melting Point
1,072 K
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 19, 9, 2
Electronegativity
1.12
Electrophilicity
0.9792877807552 eV/particle
Proton Affinity
Electron Affinity
Ionization Potential
Heat of Vaporization
398 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
5.2 kJ/mol
Heat of Formation
420.1 kJ/mol
Molar Heat Capacity
26.94 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.192 J/(g⋅K)
Thermal Conductivity
11.3 W/(m K)
Gas Basicity
Dipole Polarizability
205 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
Oxidation States2, 3, 4
Color
Silver
Crystal StructureSimple Hexagonal (FCC)
Lattice Constant
5.16 Å
Bulk Modulus
Electrical Resistivity
Electron Configuration[Xe] 4f1 5d1 6s2
Magnetic Ordering
Magnetic Susceptibility
PhaseSolid
Poisson Ratio
Shear Modulus
Young's Modulus
Allotropes
Alternate Names
Adiabatic Index
Appearance
Electric Conductivity
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
Curie Point
Electrical
Hardness
Magnetic Susceptibility
Magnetic
Neel Point
Neutron Cross Section
Neutron Mass Absorption
Gas Phase
Quantum Numbers
Refractive Index
Space Group
Speed of Sound
Superconducting Point
Thermal Expansion
Valence Electrons
Classification
CategoryLanthanides, Lanthanides
CAS Group
IUPAC Group
Glawe Number31
Mendeleev Number15
Pettifor Number32
Geochemical Classrare earth & related
Goldschmidt Classlitophile
Radioactivity
RadioactiveNo
Decay Mode
Half-Life
Lifetime
Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
66.5 mg/kg
Abundance in Oceans
0.0000012 mg/L
Abundance in Human Body
Abundance in Meteor
Abundance in Sun
Abundance in Universe1×10-6%

Isotopes of Cerium

Stable Isotopes
136Ce 138Ce 140Ce 142Ce
Unstable Isotopes
119Ce 120Ce 121Ce 122Ce 123Ce 124Ce 125Ce 126Ce 127Ce 128Ce 129Ce 130Ce 131Ce 132Ce 133Ce 134Ce 135Ce 137Ce 139Ce 141Ce 143Ce 144Ce 145Ce 146Ce 147Ce 148Ce 149Ce 150Ce 151Ce 152Ce 153Ce 154Ce 155Ce 156Ce 157Ce

History

Jöns Jakob Berzelius and Wilhelm Hisinger discovered the element in ceria in 1803 in Sweden. Klaproth discovered it simultaneously and independently in some tantalum samples in Germany. Carl Gustaf Mosander, who worked closely with Berzelius, prepared metallic cerium in 1825. Cerium was named for the asteroid Ceres

DiscoverersW. von Hisinger, J. Berzelius, M. Klaproth
Discovery LocationSweden/Germany
Discovery Year1803
Name OriginNamed after the asteroid, Ceres, discovered two years before the element.
Cerium is considered to be moderately toxic
Seawater contains 1.5 parts per trillion of cerium

Uses

Cerium is used in carbon-arc lighting, especially in the motion picture industry. Cerium oxide is an important component of glass polishing powders and phosphors used in screens and fluorescent lamps. Cerium compounds are also used in the manufacture of glass, both as a component and as a decolorizer. Its oxides are used in the optics and glass-making industries. Its salts are used in the photography and textile industry. Used in high-intensity carbon lamps and as alloying agents in special metals.

Sources

Most abundant rare earth metal. Found in many minerals like monazite sand [Ce(PO4)].