Copper

Copper (Cu)

Copper is the 29th element in the periodic table and has a symbol of Cu and atomic number of 29. It has an atomic weight of 63.546 and a mass number of 63. Copper has twenty-nine protons and thirty-four neutrons in its nucleus, and twenty-nine electrons in four shells. It is located in group eleven, period four and block d of the periodic table. Red-brown transition element. Known by the Romans as 'cuprum.' Extracted and used for thousands of years. Malleable, ductile and an excellent conductor of heat and electricity. When in moist conditions, a greenish layer forms on the outside.
Atomic Number29
Atomic Weight63.546
Mass Number63
Group11
Period4
Blockd
Protons29 p+
Neutrons34 n0
Electrons29 e-
Animated Bohr Model of Cu (Copper)

Physical Properties

Atomic Radius
135 pm
Molar Volume
Covalent Radius
112 pm
Metallic Radius
118 pm
Ionic Radius
46 pm
Crystal Radius
60 pm
Van der Waals Radius
196 pm
Density
8.96 g/cm³
Atomic Radii of the Elements: Copper020406080100120140160180200pmAtomic RadiusCovalent RadiusMetallic RadiusVan der Waals Radius

Chemical Properties

Energy
Proton Affinity
655.3 kJ/mol
Electron Affinity
Ionization Energy
7.72638 eV/particle
Ionization Energies of Cu (Copper)
Heat of Vaporization
304.6 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
13.01 kJ/mol
Heat of Formation
337.4 kJ/mol
Electrons
Electron Shells2, 8, 18, 1
Bohr Model: Cu (Copper)
Valence Electrons1
Lewis Structure: Cu (Copper)
Electron Configuration[Ar] 3d10 4s1
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s1
Enhanced Bohr Model of Cu (Copper)
Orbital Diagram of Cu (Copper)
Oxidation States-2, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4
Electronegativity
1.9
Electrophilicity Index
1.546403297611602 eV/particle
States of Matter
PhaseSolid
Gas Phase
Boiling Point
2,833.15 K
Melting Point
1,357.77 K
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
Triple Point
Visual

Copper is a Copper. Cu has a CPK of #a52a2a, Jmol of #c88033, and MOLCAS GV of #c88033. The Appearance of Element 29 is red-orange metallic luster.

Color
Copper
Appearancered-orange metallic luster
Refractive Index
Thermodynamic Properties
Thermal Conductivity
Thermal Expansion
0.0000165 1/K
Molar Heat Capacity
24.44 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.385 J/(g⋅K)
Heat Capacity Ratio (Adiabatic Index)
Electrical Properties
TypeConductor
Electrical Conductivity
59 MS/m
Electrical Resistivity
0.000000017 m Ω
Superconducting Point
Magnetism
Typediamagnetic
Magnetic Susceptibility (Mass)
-0.00000000108 m³/Kg
Magnetic Susceptibility (Molar)
-0.0000000000686 m³/mol
Magnetic Susceptibility (Volume)
-0.00000963
Magnetic Ordering
Curie Point
Neel Point
Structure

The Crystal Structure of Copper is FCC. The lattice constant of Cu is 3.61 Å. The lattice angles of Element 29 are π/2, π/2, π/2.

Crystal StructureFace Centered Cubic (FCC)
Lattice Constant
3.61 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, π/2
Mechanical Properties

Copper has a Brinell of 874 MPa, Mohs hardness of 3 MPa, and Vickers of 369 MPa. The Bulk Modulus of Cu is 140 GPa. The Shear Modulus of Element 29 is 48 GPa. The Young Modulus of Copper (Cu) is 130 GPa. The Poisson Ratio of Copper is 0.34. The Speed of Sound of Cu is 3570 m/s.

Hardness
3 MPa
Bulk Modulus
140 GPa
Shear Modulus
48 GPa
Young's Modulus
130 GPa
Poisson Ratio
0.34
Speed of Sound
3,570 m/s
Classification

The CAS Group of Copper is IB. The IUPAC Group of Cu is IB. The Glawe Number of Element 29 is 68. The Mendeleev Number of Copper (Cu) is 71. The Pettifor Number of Copper is 72. The Geochemical Class of Cu is first series transition metal. The Goldschmidt Class of Element 29 is chalcophile.

CategoryTransition metals, Transition metals
CAS GroupIB
IUPAC GroupIB
Glawe Number68
Mendeleev Number71
Pettifor Number72
Geochemical Classfirst series transition metal
Goldschmidt Classchalcophile

Other

The Gas Basicity of Copper is 632.4 kJ/mol. The Dipole Polarizability of Cu is 46.5 plus or minus 0.5 a₀. Element 29 has a C6 Dispersion Coefficient (CD) of 253 a₀, and C6 Dispersion Coefficient (GB) of 264 a₀. The Allotropes of Copper (Cu) is . The Neutron Cross Section of Copper is 3.78. The Neutron Mass Absorption of Cu is 0.0021. The Quantum Numbers of Element 29 is 2S1/2. The Space Group of Copper (Cu) is 225 (Fm_3m).

Gas Basicity
632.4 kJ/mol
Dipole Polarizability
46.5 ± 0.5 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
253 a₀
Allotropes
Neutron Cross Section
3.78
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.0021
Quantum Numbers2S1/2
Space Group225 (Fm_3m)

Isotopes of Copper

Stable Isotopes2
Unstable Isotopes31
Natural Isotopes2
Isotopic Composition6369.15%6369.15%6530.85%6530.85%

52Cu

Mass Number52
Neutron Number23
Relative Atomic Mass
51.997982 ± 0.000644 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin3
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
p (proton emission)

53Cu

Mass Number53
Neutron Number24
Relative Atomic Mass
52.985894 ± 0.000537 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
p (proton emission)

54Cu

Mass Number54
Neutron Number25
Relative Atomic Mass
53.977198 ± 0.000429 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin3
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
p (proton emission)

55Cu

Mass Number55
Neutron Number26
Relative Atomic Mass
54.966038 ± 0.000167 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
55.9 ± 1.5 ms
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1987
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

56Cu

Mass Number56
Neutron Number27
Relative Atomic Mass
55.958529278 ± 0.000006864 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
80.8 ± 0.6 ms
Spin4
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1987
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)0.4%

57Cu

Mass Number57
Neutron Number28
Relative Atomic Mass
56.949211686 ± 0.000000537 Da
G-Factor
1.7213333333333 ± 0.0046666666666667
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
196.4 ± 0.7 ms
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1976
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

58Cu

Mass Number58
Neutron Number29
Relative Atomic Mass
57.944532283 ± 0.000000604 Da
G-Factor
0.571 ± 0.002
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
3.204 ± 0.007 s
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1952
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

59Cu

Mass Number59
Neutron Number30
Relative Atomic Mass
58.939496713 ± 0.000000566 Da
G-Factor
1.2620666666667 ± 0.0006
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
81.5 ± 0.5 s
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1947
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

60Cu

Mass Number60
Neutron Number31
Relative Atomic Mass
59.937363787 ± 0.000001731 Da
G-Factor
0.61 ± 0.00025
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
23.7 ± 0.4 m
Spin2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1947
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

61Cu

Mass Number61
Neutron Number32
Relative Atomic Mass
60.933457375 ± 0.00000102 Da
G-Factor
1.4071333333333 ± 0.00033333333333333
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
3.343 ± 0.016 h
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1937
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

62Cu

Mass Number62
Neutron Number33
Relative Atomic Mass
61.932594803 ± 0.000000683 Da
G-Factor
-0.38 ± 0.0004
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
9.672 ± 0.008 m
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1936
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

63Cu

Mass Number63
Neutron Number34
Relative Atomic Mass
62.929597119 ± 0.000000457 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
69.15 ± 0.15
RadioactivityStable
Half LifeNot Radioactive ☢️
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
-0.22 ± 0.015
Discovery Year1923
Parity-

64Cu

Mass Number64
Neutron Number35
Relative Atomic Mass
63.929764001 ± 0.000000458 Da
G-Factor
-0.2166 ± 0.0004
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
12.7004 ± 0.0013 h
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1936
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)61.52%
β (β decay)38.48%

65Cu

Mass Number65
Neutron Number36
Relative Atomic Mass
64.927789476 ± 0.00000069 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
30.85 ± 0.15
RadioactivityStable
Half LifeNot Radioactive ☢️
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
-0.204 ± 0.014
Discovery Year1923
Parity-

66Cu

Mass Number66
Neutron Number37
Relative Atomic Mass
65.928868804 ± 0.000000696 Da
G-Factor
-0.2826 ± 0.0008
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
5.12 ± 0.014 m
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1937
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

67Cu

Mass Number67
Neutron Number38
Relative Atomic Mass
66.92772949 ± 0.000000957 Da
G-Factor
1.6780666666667 ± 0.0004
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
61.83 ± 0.12 h
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1948
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

68Cu

Mass Number68
Neutron Number39
Relative Atomic Mass
67.929610887 ± 0.0000017 Da
G-Factor
2.396 ± 0.0006
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
30.9 ± 0.6 s
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1953
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

69Cu

Mass Number69
Neutron Number40
Relative Atomic Mass
68.929429267 ± 0.0000015 Da
G-Factor
1.8943333333333 ± 0.00066666666666667
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
2.85 ± 0.15 m
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1966
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

70Cu

Mass Number70
Neutron Number41
Relative Atomic Mass
69.932392078 ± 0.000001161 Da
G-Factor
0.22801666666667 ± 0.000083333333333333
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
44.5 ± 0.2 s
Spin6
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1971
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

71Cu

Mass Number71
Neutron Number42
Relative Atomic Mass
70.932676831 ± 0.0000016 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
19.4 ± 1.4 s
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1983
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

72Cu

Mass Number72
Neutron Number43
Relative Atomic Mass
71.935820306 ± 0.0000015 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
6.63 ± 0.03 s
Spin2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1983
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

73Cu

Mass Number73
Neutron Number44
Relative Atomic Mass
72.936674376 ± 0.000002084 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
4.2 ± 0.12 s
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1983
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)0.029%

74Cu

Mass Number74
Neutron Number45
Relative Atomic Mass
73.93987486 ± 0.0000066 Da
G-Factor
-0.5335 ± 0.0006
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
1.606 ± 0.009 s
Spin2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1987
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)0.075%

75Cu

Mass Number75
Neutron Number46
Relative Atomic Mass
74.941523817 ± 0.00000077 Da
G-Factor
0.40276 ± 0.0004
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
1.224 ± 0.003 s
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1985
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)2.7%

76Cu

Mass Number76
Neutron Number47
Relative Atomic Mass
75.945268974 ± 0.00000098 Da
G-Factor
-0.36356666666667 ± 0.0005
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
637.7 ± 5.5 ms
Spin3
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1987
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)7.2%

77Cu

Mass Number77
Neutron Number48
Relative Atomic Mass
76.947543599 ± 0.0000013 Da
G-Factor
0.63852 ± 0.00068
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
470.3 ± 1.7 ms
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1987
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)30.1%

78Cu

Mass Number78
Neutron Number49
Relative Atomic Mass
77.951916524 ± 0.000014312 Da
G-Factor
0.039666666666667 ± 0.0005
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
330.7 ± 2 ms
Spin6
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1991
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)50.6%
2n (2-neutron emission)

79Cu

Mass Number79
Neutron Number50
Relative Atomic Mass
78.9544731 ± 0.0001127 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
241.3 ± 2.1 ms
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1991
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)66%
2n (2-neutron emission)

80Cu

Mass Number80
Neutron Number51
Relative Atomic Mass
79.960623 ± 0.000322 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
113.3 ± 6.4 ms
Spin
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1995
Parity

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)58%
2n (2-neutron emission)

81Cu

Mass Number81
Neutron Number52
Relative Atomic Mass
80.965743 ± 0.000322 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
73.2 ± 6.8 ms
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2010
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)81%
2n (2-neutron emission)

82Cu

Mass Number82
Neutron Number53
Relative Atomic Mass
81.972378 ± 0.000429 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
34 ± 7 ms
Spin
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2010
Parity

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

83Cu

Mass Number83
Neutron Number54
Relative Atomic Mass
82.97811 ± 0.000537 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2017
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

84Cu

Mass Number84
Neutron Number55
Relative Atomic Mass
83.985271 ± 0.000537 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year
Parity

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
NatCopper

History

Copper occurs naturally as native copper and was known to some of the oldest civilizations on record. Earliest estimates of the discovery of copper suggest around 9000 BC in the Middle East. It was one of the most important materials to humans throughout the copper and bronze ages. From the Latin word cuprum, from the island of Cyprus

DiscoverersKnown to the ancients.
Discovery Location
Discovery Year
Etymology (Name Origin)Symbol from Latin: cuprum (island of Cyprus famed for its copper mines).
PronunciationKOP-er (English)
Cooking acidic food in copper pots can cause toxicity
Pure copper is orange-red and acquires a reddish tarnish when exposed to air

Uses

Copper is often used for electrical wiring applications and for household plumbing applications. Copper sulfate is used as a fungicide and as an algicide in rivers, lakes and ponds. It is also used in cookware and cooking utensils. Commercially important alloys such as brass and bronze are made with copper and other metals. Most often used as an electrical conductor. Also used in the manufacture of water pipes. Its alloys are used in jewelry and for coins.

Sources

Pure copper occurs rarely in nature. Usually found in sulfides as in chalcopyrite (CuFeS2), coveline (CuS), chalcosine (Cu2S) or oxides like cuprite (Cu2O).

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
Natural Abundance (Oceans)
0.00025 mg/L
Natural Abundance (Human Body)
0.0001 %
Natural Abundance (Meteor)
0.011 %
Natural Abundance (Sun)
0.00007 %
Abundance in Universe
0.000006 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s0.6614
2p3.903
2s7.9802
3d15.7994
3p14.2694
3s13.4057
4s23.1576

Also Known As

  • Cu
  • element 29
  • 29Cu
  • Tatum-T
  • Paragard T 380A
  • CU-7

Translations

  • Italianrame
  • GermanKupfer
  • Norwegian Bokmålkobber
  • Frenchcuivre
  • Dutchkoper
  • Spanishcobre
  • Chinese (Traditional)
  • Afrikaanskoper
  • Amharicመዳብ
  • AragoneseArambre
  • Old EnglishCoper
  • Arabicنحاس
  • AsturianCobre
  • AymaraAnti
  • Azerbaijanimis
  • BashkirБаҡыр
  • Belarusianмедзь
  • Bulgarianмед
  • Banglaতামা
  • BretonKouevr
  • Bosnianbakar
  • Catalancoure
  • CherokeeᎥᏣᏱ
  • Central Kurdishمس
  • CorsicanRamu
  • Czechměď
  • ChuvashПăхăр
  • Welshcopr
  • Danishkobber
  • ZazaPaxır
  • Divehiރަތުލޯ
  • Greekχαλκός
  • Esperantokupro
  • Estonianvask
  • Basquekobre
  • ExtremaduranCobri
  • Persianمس
  • Finnishkupari
  • Northern FrisianKööber
  • FriulianRam
  • Western FrisianKoper
  • Irishcopar
  • Scottish GaelicCopar
  • Galiciancobre
  • GuaraniKuarepoti Pytã
  • Gujaratiતાંબુ
  • Manxcobbyr
  • Hebrewנחושת
  • Hindiताम्र
  • Fiji HindiTamba
  • CroatianBakar
  • Haitian CreoleKwiv
  • Hungarianréz
  • Armenianպղինձ
  • Interlinguacupro
  • Indonesiantembaga
  • Idokupro
  • Icelandickopar
  • Japanese
  • Lojbantunka
  • JavaneseTembaga
  • Georgianსპილენძი
  • KongoMutako
  • KazakhМыс
  • Kannadaತಾಮ್ರ
  • Korean구리
  • Komi-PermyakЫргӧн
  • Kashmiriترٛام
  • ColognianKoffer
  • KurdishMis
  • KomiЫргӧн
  • CornishKober
  • Latincuprum
  • LuxembourgishKoffer
  • lbeДувсси
  • LimburgishKoper
  • LigurianRammo
  • LithuanianVaris
  • Latvianvarš
  • Māorikonukura
  • Macedonianбакар
  • Malayalamചെമ്പ്
  • Mongolianзэс
  • Marathiतांबे
  • Western MariВӹргеньӹ
  • Malaytembaga
  • Burmeseကြေးနီ
  • Erzyaпиже
  • nahChīchīltic tepoztli
  • NeapolitanRamma
  • Low GermanKopper
  • Nepaliतामा
  • Norwegian Nynorskkopar
  • NavajoBéésh Łichíiʼii
  • OccitanCoire
  • OsseticÆрхуы
  • Punjabiਤਾਂਬਾ
  • PapiamentoKoper
  • Polishmiedź
  • Western Panjabiتانبا
  • Pashtoتامبه
  • Portuguesecobre
  • QuechuaAnta
  • Romaniancupru
  • Russianмедь
  • RusynМідь
  • Sanskritताम्रम्
  • YakutАлтан
  • Sicilianramu
  • Serbo-Croatianbakar
  • Slovakmeď
  • Slovenianbaker
  • AlbanianBakri
  • Serbianбакар
  • Saterland FrisianKooper
  • SundaneseTambaga
  • Swedishkoppar
  • Swahilishaba
  • Tamilசெப்பு
  • Teluguరాగి
  • TajikМис
  • Thaiทองแดง
  • Tagalogcopper
  • Turkishbakır
  • Tatarбакыр
  • Uyghurمىس
  • Ukrainianмідь
  • Urduتانبا
  • UzbekMis
  • VepsVas'k
  • Vietnameseđồng
  • WarayTumbaga
  • KalmykЗес
  • Yiddishקופער
  • YorubaBàbàowó
  • ZhuangDoengz
  • Chinese
  • ZuluUmthofu
  • Venetianrame
  • CebuanoTumbaga
  • Odiaତମ୍ବା
  • KikuyuCopper
  • PiedmonteseAram
  • Scotscopper
  • FaroeseKopar
  • Belarusian (Taraskievica orthography)медзь
  • German (Switzerland)Kupfer
  • English (Canada)copper
  • English (United Kingdom)copper
  • Portuguese (Brazil)cobre
  • Cantonese
  • Newariकपर
  • Chinese (Simplified)
  • BuriatЗэд
  • Min Nan ChineseTâng
  • SomaliKober
  • Literary Chinese
  • VõroVask
  • SamogitianVaris
  • Swiss GermanKupfer
  • LezghianЦур
  • Chinese (China)
  • Chinese (Hong Kong SAR China)
  • Chinese (Taiwan)
  • AromanianBâcâri
  • Ilokogambang
  • cdoDè̤ng
  • SardinianRàmine
  • NauruEborage
  • KashubianKòper
  • KyrgyzЖез
  • Malteseram
  • LombardRam
  • Gan Chinese
  • azbپاخیٛر
  • Bhojpuriताँमा
  • Tibetanཟངས།
  • Volapükkuprin
  • Assameseতাম
  • Jamaican Creole EnglishKapa
  • Mingrelianლინჯი
  • oloVaski
  • Hakka Chinese
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