Europium

Europium (Eu)

Soft silvery metallic element belonging to the lanthanoids. Eu-151 and Eu-153 are the only two stable isotopes, both of which are Neutron absorbers. Discovered in 1889 by Sir William Crookes.
Atomic Number63
Atomic Weight151.964
Mass Number153
Group
Period6
Blockf
Protons63 p+
Neutrons90 n0
Electrons63 e-
Eu-Block.jpg Animated Bohr Model Enhanced Bohr Model Bohr Model Orbital Diagram

Properties

Atomic Radius
185 pm
Atomic Volume
Covalent Radius
168 pm
Metallic Radius
Ionic Radius
117 pm
Crystal Radius
131 pm
Van der Waals radius
235 pm
Density
5.24 g/cm³
Boiling Point
1,870 K
Melting Point
1,095 K
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 25, 8, 2
Electronegativity
Electrophilicity
1.11045482541 eV/particle
Proton Affinity
Electron Affinity
Ionization Potential
5.670385 eV/particle
Heat of Vaporization
176 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
Heat of Formation
177.4 kJ/mol
Molar Heat Capacity
27.66 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.182 J/(g⋅K)
Thermal Conductivity
13.9 W/(m K)
Gas Basicity
Dipole Polarizability
184 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
Oxidation States2, 3
Color
Silver
Crystal StructureBody Centered Cubic (BCC)
Lattice Constant
4.61 Å
Bulk Modulus
Electrical Resistivity
Electron Configuration[Xe] 4f7 6s2
Magnetic Ordering
Magnetic Susceptibility
PhaseSolid
Poisson Ratio
Shear Modulus
Young's Modulus
Allotropes
Alternate Names
Adiabatic Index
Appearance
Electric Conductivity
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
Curie Point
Electrical
Hardness
Magnetic Susceptibility
Magnetic
Neel Point
Neutron Cross Section
Neutron Mass Absorption
Gas Phase
Quantum Numbers
Refractive Index
Space Group
Speed of Sound
Superconducting Point
Thermal Expansion
Valence Electrons
Classification
CategoryLanthanides, Lanthanides
CAS Group
IUPAC Group
Glawe Number17
Mendeleev Number25
Pettifor Number18
Geochemical Classrare earth & related
Goldschmidt Classlitophile
Radioactivity
RadioactiveNo
Decay Mode
Half-Life
Lifetime
Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
Abundance in Oceans
0.00000013 mg/L
Abundance in Human Body
Abundance in Meteor
Abundance in Sun
Abundance in Universe5×10-8%

Isotopes of Europium

Stable Isotopes
151Eu 153Eu
Unstable Isotopes
130Eu 131Eu 132Eu 133Eu 134Eu 135Eu 136Eu 137Eu 138Eu 139Eu 140Eu 141Eu 142Eu 143Eu 144Eu 145Eu 146Eu 147Eu 148Eu 149Eu 150Eu 152Eu 154Eu 155Eu 156Eu 157Eu 158Eu 159Eu 160Eu 161Eu 162Eu 163Eu 164Eu 165Eu 166Eu 167Eu

History

Europium was first found by Paul Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran in 1890. In 1896, French chemist Eugène-Antole Demarçay identified spectroscopic lines in ‘samarium' caused by europium. He successfully isolated europium in 1901 using repeated crystallizations of samarium magnesium nitrate. Europium was named after Europe

DiscoverersEugène Demarçay
Discovery LocationFrance
Discovery Year1901
Name OriginNamed for the continent of Europe.
Europium is considered to be mildly toxic
Europium is the most reactive rare earth element

Uses

Europium is used in the manufacture of fluorescent glass. It is also used in the anti-counterfeiting phosphors in Euro banknotes. Europium-doped plastic has been used as a laser material. Europium isotopes are good neutron absorbers and are used in nuclear reactor control rods. Used with yttrium oxide to make red phosphors for color televisions.

Sources

Obtained from monazite sand, which is a mixture of phosphates of calcium, thorium, cerium, and most other rare earths.