Galij[um]

Galij[um] (Ga)

hemijski element sa simbolom Ga i atomskim brojem 31
Atomic Number31
Atomic Weight69.723
Maseni broj69
Group13
Period4
Blockp
Proton31 p+
Neutron38 n0
Elektron31 e-
Animated Bohrov model atoma of Ga (Galij[um])

Physical Property

Atomski Radijus
130 pm
Molarni volumen
covalent radius
124 pm
Metallic Radius
125 pm
Ionski radijus
47 pm
Crystal Radius
61 pm
Van der Waalsov radijus
187 pm
gustoća
5,91 g/cm³
Atomic Radii Of The Elements: Galij[um]0102030405060708090100110120130140150160170180190pmAtomski RadijusCovalent RadiusMetallic RadiusVan der Waalsov radijus

Chemical Property

energija
proton affinity
electron affinity
ionization energy
5,9993018 eV/particle
ionization energy of Ga (Galij[um])
Toplota isparavanja
270,3 kJ/mol
toplota topljenja
5,59 kJ/mol
standard enthalpy of formation
271,96 kJ/mol
Elektron
electron shell2, 8, 18, 3
Bohrov model atoma: Ga (Galij[um])
Valentni elektron3
Lewis structure: Ga (Galij[um])
electron configuration[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p1
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p1
Enhanced Bohrov model atoma of Ga (Galij[um])
Orbital Diagram of Ga (Galij[um])
oksidacijsko stanje-5, -4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3
Elektronegativnost
1.81
Electrophilicity Index
0,927762651403701 eV/particle
fundamental state of matter
agregatno stanjeSolid
gaseous state of matter
Boiling Point
2.502,15 K
Melting Point
302,9146 K
critical pressure
Kritična temperatura
Trojna tačka
302,9166 K
appearance
boja
Silver
appearancesilver-white
Indeks prelamanja
thermodynamic material property
Thermal Conductivity
28,1 W/(m K)
thermal expansion
0,00012 1/K
molar heat capacity
26,03 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0,373 J/(g⋅K)
heat capacity ratio
electrical properties
typeConductor
Specifična električna provodljivost
7,1 MS/m
electrical resistivity
0,00000014 m Ω
Superprovodljivost
1,083 K
Magnetizam
typediamagnetic
magnetic susceptibility (Mass)
-0,000000003 m³/Kg
magnetic susceptibility (Molar)
-0,000000000209 m³/mol
magnetic susceptibility (Volume)
-0,0000177
magnetic ordering
Kirijeva tačka
Néel temperature
struktura
Crystal StructureBase Centered Orthorhombic (ORC)
lattice constant
4,51 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, π/2
mechanical property
Tvrdoća
1,5 MPa
bulk modulus
shear modulus
Young's modulus
Poisson's ratio
Brzina zvuka
2.740 m/s
klasifikacija
CategoryPost-transition metals, Poor metals
CAS GroupIIIB
IUPAC GroupIIIA
Glawe Number79
Mendeleev Number83
Pettifor Number81
Geochemical Class
Goldschmidt classificationchalcophile

other

Gas Basicity
polarizability
50 ± 3 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
498 a₀
allotrope
Neutron cross section
2,9
Neutron Mass Absorption
0,0015
Kvantni brojevi2P1/2
space group64 (Cmca)

Isotopes of Gallium

Stable Isotopes2
Unstable Isotopes31
Natural Isotopes2
Isotopic Composition6960.11%6960.11%7139.89%7139.89%

56Ga

Maseni broj56
broj neutrona25
relative atomic mass
55,995878 ± 0,000537 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
spin3
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića
parity+

decay modeintensity
p (proton emission)

57Ga

Maseni broj57
broj neutrona26
relative atomic mass
56,983457 ± 0,000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića
parity-

decay modeintensity
p (proton emission)

58Ga

Maseni broj58
broj neutrona27
relative atomic mass
57,974729 ± 0,000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
spin2
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića
parity+

decay modeintensity
p (proton emission)

59Ga

Maseni broj59
broj neutrona28
relative atomic mass
58,963757 ± 0,000183 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića
parity-

decay modeintensity
p (proton emission)

60Ga

Maseni broj60
broj neutrona29
relative atomic mass
59,957498 ± 0,000215 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
72,4 ± 1,7 ms
spin2
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića1995
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)1.6%
β+α (β+-delayed α emission)0.023%

61Ga

Maseni broj61
broj neutrona30
relative atomic mass
60,949398861 ± 0,000040787 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
165,9 ± 2,5 ms
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića1987
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)0.25%

62Ga

Maseni broj62
broj neutrona31
relative atomic mass
61,944189639 ± 0,000000684 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
116,122 ± 0,021 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1978
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

63Ga

Maseni broj63
broj neutrona32
relative atomic mass
62,939294194 ± 0,0000014 Da
g-factor
0,097866666666667 ± 0,00033333333333333
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
32,4 ± 0,5 s
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0,212 ± 0,014
datum otkrića1965
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

64Ga

Maseni broj64
broj neutrona33
relative atomic mass
63,936840366 ± 0,000001533 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
2,627 ± 0,012 m
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1953
parity

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

65Ga

Maseni broj65
broj neutrona34
relative atomic mass
64,932734424 ± 0,000000849 Da
g-factor
1,182 ± 0,002
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
15,133 ± 0,028 m
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0,21 ± 0,015
datum otkrića1938
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

66Ga

Maseni broj66
broj neutrona35
relative atomic mass
65,931589766 ± 0,000001172 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
9,304 ± 0,008 h
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1937
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

67Ga

Maseni broj67
broj neutrona36
relative atomic mass
66,928202276 ± 0,000001262 Da
g-factor
1,2329333333333 ± 0,00033333333333333
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
3,2617 ± 0,0004 d
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0,197 ± 0,002
datum otkrića1938
parity-

decay modeintensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

68Ga

Maseni broj68
broj neutrona37
relative atomic mass
67,927980161 ± 0,000001535 Da
g-factor
0,01174 ± 0,00007
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
67,842 ± 0,016 m
spin1
nuclear quadrupole moment
-0,0277 ± 0,0014
datum otkrića1937
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

69Ga

Maseni broj69
broj neutrona38
relative atomic mass
68,925573528 ± 0,000001285 Da
g-factor
1,3433466666667 ± 0,00004
natural abundance
60,108 ± 0,05
Radioaktivnoststable isotope
Vrijeme poluraspadaNot Radioactive ☢️
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0,171 ± 0,002
datum otkrića1923
parity-

70Ga

Maseni broj70
broj neutrona39
relative atomic mass
69,926021914 ± 0,000001289 Da
g-factor
0,571 ± 0,002
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
21,14 ± 0,05 m
spin1
nuclear quadrupole moment
0,105 ± 0,007
datum otkrića1937
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)99.59%
ϵ (electron capture)0.41%

71Ga

Maseni broj71
broj neutrona40
relative atomic mass
70,924702554 ± 0,00000087 Da
g-factor
1,7068866666667 ± 0,00006
natural abundance
39,892 ± 0,05
Radioaktivnoststable isotope
Vrijeme poluraspadaNot Radioactive ☢️
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0,107 ± 0,001
datum otkrića1923
parity-

72Ga

Maseni broj72
broj neutrona41
relative atomic mass
71,926367452 ± 0,000000878 Da
g-factor
-0,044046666666667 ± 0,0000066666666666667
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
14,025 ± 0,01 h
spin3
nuclear quadrupole moment
0,53 ± 0,006
datum otkrića1939
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

73Ga

Maseni broj73
broj neutrona42
relative atomic mass
72,92517468 ± 0,0000018 Da
g-factor
0,13933333333333 ± 0,0013333333333333
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
4,86 ± 0,03 h
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1949
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

74Ga

Maseni broj74
broj neutrona43
relative atomic mass
73,926945725 ± 0,000003214 Da
g-factor
0 ± 0,026666666666667
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
8,12 ± 0,12 m
spin3
nuclear quadrupole moment
0,55 ± 0,04
datum otkrića1956
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

75Ga

Maseni broj75
broj neutrona44
relative atomic mass
74,926504484 ± 0,00000072 Da
g-factor
1,2233333333333 ± 0,0026666666666667
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
126 ± 2 s
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
-0,285 ± 0,017
datum otkrića1960
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

76Ga

Maseni broj76
broj neutrona45
relative atomic mass
75,928827624 ± 0,0000021 Da
g-factor
-0,4725 ± 0,002
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
30,6 ± 0,6 s
spin2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0,33 ± 0,02
datum otkrića1961
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

77Ga

Maseni broj77
broj neutrona46
relative atomic mass
76,929154299 ± 0,0000026 Da
g-factor
1,3453333333333 ± 0,002
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
13,2 ± 0,2 s
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
-0,208 ± 0,013
datum otkrića1968
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

78Ga

Maseni broj78
broj neutrona47
relative atomic mass
77,931610854 ± 0,000001127 Da
g-factor
-0,607 ± 0,0025
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
5,09 ± 0,05 s
spin2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0,33 ± 0,02
datum otkrića1972
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

79Ga

Maseni broj79
broj neutrona48
relative atomic mass
78,932851582 ± 0,000001296 Da
g-factor
0,69733333333333 ± 0,002
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
2,848 ± 0,003 s
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0,158 ± 0,01
datum otkrića1974
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)0.089%

80Ga

Maseni broj80
broj neutrona49
relative atomic mass
79,936420773 ± 0,000003103 Da
g-factor
0,006 ± 0,00066666666666667
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
1,9 ± 0,1 s
spin6
nuclear quadrupole moment
0,38 ± 0,02
datum otkrića1974
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)0.86%

81Ga

Maseni broj81
broj neutrona50
relative atomic mass
80,938133841 ± 0,000003503 Da
g-factor
0,6984 ± 0,002
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
1,217 ± 0,005 s
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
-0,048 ± 0,008
datum otkrića1976
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)12.5%

82Ga

Maseni broj82
broj neutrona51
relative atomic mass
81,943176531 ± 0,000002604 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
600 ± 2 ms
spin2
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića1976
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)21.2%
2n (2-neutron emission)

83Ga

Maseni broj83
broj neutrona52
relative atomic mass
82,9471203 ± 0,000002804 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
310 ± 0,7 ms
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića1976
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)85%
2n (2-neutron emission)

84Ga

Maseni broj84
broj neutrona53
relative atomic mass
83,952663 ± 0,000032 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
97,6 ± 1,2 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1991
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)43%
2n (2-neutron emission)1.6%

85Ga

Maseni broj85
broj neutrona54
relative atomic mass
84,957333 ± 0,00004 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
95,3 ± 1 ms
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića1997
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)77%
2n (2-neutron emission)1.3%

86Ga

Maseni broj86
broj neutrona55
relative atomic mass
85,963757 ± 0,000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
49 ± 2 ms
spin
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića1997
parity

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)69%
2n (2-neutron emission)16.2%

87Ga

Maseni broj87
broj neutrona56
relative atomic mass
86,969007 ± 0,000537 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
29 ± 4 ms
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića2010
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)81%
2n (2-neutron emission)10.2%

88Ga

Maseni broj88
broj neutrona57
relative atomic mass
87,975963 ± 0,000537 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
spin
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića
parity

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
Gallium crystals

historija

otkrivač ili izumiteljPaul Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran
mjesto otkrićaFrance
datum otkrića1875
EtimologijaLatin: Gallia (France).
pronunciationGAL-i-em (engleski)

izvor

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
natural abundance (okean)
0,00003 mg/L
natural abundance (ljudsko tijelo)
natural abundance (Meteoroidi)
0,00076 %
natural abundance (Sunce)
0,000004 %
Abundance in Universe
0,000001 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s0.6906
2p3.9092
2s8.401
3d15.9067
3p14.7964
3s14.0038
4p24.7784
4s23.9332