Gallium

Gallium (Ga)

chemical element with symbol Ga and atomic number 31
Atomic Number31
Atomic Weight69.723
Nombor jisim69
Group13
Period4
Blockp
proton31 p+
neutron38 n0
Elektron31 e-
Animated Model Bohr of Ga (Gallium)

Sifat Fizikal

Jejari Atom
130 pm
molar volume
Jejari kovalen
124 pm
Metallic Radius
125 pm
ionic radius
47 pm
Crystal Radius
61 pm
Jejari van der Waals
187 pm
ketumpatan
5.91 g/cm³
Atomic Radii Of The Elements: Gallium0102030405060708090100110120130140150160170180190pmJejari AtomJejari KovalenMetallic RadiusJejari van der Waals

Sifat Kimia

tenaga
proton affinity
Pertalian elektron
ionization energy
5.9993018 eV/particle
ionization energy of Ga (Gallium)
Entalpi pengewapan
270.3 kJ/mol
entalpi pelakuran
5.59 kJ/mol
standard enthalpy of formation
271.96 kJ/mol
Elektron
Petala elektron2, 8, 18, 3
Model Bohr: Ga (Gallium)
Elektron valens3
Teori ion Lewis: Ga (Gallium)
tatarajah elektron[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p1
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p1
Enhanced Model Bohr of Ga (Gallium)
Orbital Diagram of Ga (Gallium)
Keadaan pengoksidaan-5, -4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3
Keelektronegatifan
1.81
Electrophilicity Index
0.927762651403701 eV/particle
keadaan jirim asas
fasa jirimSolid
gaseous state of matter
Boiling Point
2,502.15 K
Melting Point
302.9146 K
critical pressure
critical temperature
triple point
302.9166 K
rupa
warna
Silver
rupasilver-white
indeks biasan
sifat bahan
Thermal Conductivity
28.1 W/(m K)
Pengembangan terma
0.00012 1/K
molar heat capacity
26.03 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.373 J/(g⋅K)
heat capacity ratio
electrical properties
typeConductor
Kekonduksian elektrik
7.1 MS/m
Kerintangan dan kekonduksian elektrik
0.00000014 m Ω
Kesuperkonduksian
1.083 K
kemagnetan
typediamagnetic
magnetic susceptibility (Mass)
-0.000000003 m³/Kg
magnetic susceptibility (Molar)
-0.000000000209 m³/mol
magnetic susceptibility (Volume)
-0.0000177
magnetic ordering
Suhu Curie
Néel temperature
struktur
Crystal StructureBase Centered Orthorhombic (ORC)
lattice constant
4.51 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, π/2
mechanical property
hardness
1.5 MPa
Modulus pukal
shear modulus
Young's modulus
Nisbah Poisson
Kelajuan bunyi
2,740 m/s
pengelasan
CategoryPost-transition metals, Poor metals
CAS GroupIIIB
IUPAC GroupIIIA
Glawe Number79
Mendeleev Number83
Pettifor Number81
Geochemical Class
Goldschmidt classificationchalcophile

other

Gas Basicity
polarizability
50 ± 3 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
498 a₀
allotrope
Neutron cross section
2.9
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.0015
Nombor kuantum2P1/2
space group64 (Cmca)

Isotopes of Gallium

Stable Isotopes2
Unstable Isotopes31
Natural Isotopes2
Isotopic Composition6960.11%6960.11%7139.89%7139.89%

56Ga

Nombor jisim56
nombor neutron25
jisim atom relatif
55.995878 ± 0.000537 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin3
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
p (proton emission)

57Ga

Nombor jisim57
nombor neutron26
jisim atom relatif
56.983457 ± 0.000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
p (proton emission)

58Ga

Nombor jisim58
nombor neutron27
jisim atom relatif
57.974729 ± 0.000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
p (proton emission)

59Ga

Nombor jisim59
nombor neutron28
jisim atom relatif
58.963757 ± 0.000183 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
p (proton emission)

60Ga

Nombor jisim60
nombor neutron29
jisim atom relatif
59.957498 ± 0.000215 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
72.4 ± 1.7 ms
Spin2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1995
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)1.6%
β+α (β+-delayed α emission)0.023%

61Ga

Nombor jisim61
nombor neutron30
jisim atom relatif
60.949398861 ± 0.000040787 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
165.9 ± 2.5 ms
Spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1987
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)0.25%

62Ga

Nombor jisim62
nombor neutron31
jisim atom relatif
61.944189639 ± 0.000000684 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
116.122 ± 0.021 ms
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1978
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

63Ga

Nombor jisim63
nombor neutron32
jisim atom relatif
62.939294194 ± 0.0000014 Da
g-factor
0.097866666666667 ± 0.00033333333333333
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
32.4 ± 0.5 s
Spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.212 ± 0.014
tarikh penemuan1965
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

64Ga

Nombor jisim64
nombor neutron33
jisim atom relatif
63.936840366 ± 0.000001533 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
2.627 ± 0.012 m
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1953
parity

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

65Ga

Nombor jisim65
nombor neutron34
jisim atom relatif
64.932734424 ± 0.000000849 Da
g-factor
1.182 ± 0.002
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
15.133 ± 0.028 m
Spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.21 ± 0.015
tarikh penemuan1938
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

66Ga

Nombor jisim66
nombor neutron35
jisim atom relatif
65.931589766 ± 0.000001172 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
9.304 ± 0.008 h
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1937
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

67Ga

Nombor jisim67
nombor neutron36
jisim atom relatif
66.928202276 ± 0.000001262 Da
g-factor
1.2329333333333 ± 0.00033333333333333
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
3.2617 ± 0.0004 d
Spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.197 ± 0.002
tarikh penemuan1938
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
ϵ (electron capture)100%

68Ga

Nombor jisim68
nombor neutron37
jisim atom relatif
67.927980161 ± 0.000001535 Da
g-factor
0.01174 ± 0.00007
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
67.842 ± 0.016 m
Spin1
nuclear quadrupole moment
-0.0277 ± 0.0014
tarikh penemuan1937
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

69Ga

Nombor jisim69
nombor neutron38
jisim atom relatif
68.925573528 ± 0.000001285 Da
g-factor
1.3433466666667 ± 0.00004
natural abundance
60.108 ± 0.05
Reputan radioaktifIsotop stabil
setengah hayatNot Radioactive ☢️
Spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.171 ± 0.002
tarikh penemuan1923
parity-

70Ga

Nombor jisim70
nombor neutron39
jisim atom relatif
69.926021914 ± 0.000001289 Da
g-factor
0.571 ± 0.002
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
21.14 ± 0.05 m
Spin1
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.105 ± 0.007
tarikh penemuan1937
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)99.59%
ϵ (electron capture)0.41%

71Ga

Nombor jisim71
nombor neutron40
jisim atom relatif
70.924702554 ± 0.00000087 Da
g-factor
1.7068866666667 ± 0.00006
natural abundance
39.892 ± 0.05
Reputan radioaktifIsotop stabil
setengah hayatNot Radioactive ☢️
Spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.107 ± 0.001
tarikh penemuan1923
parity-

72Ga

Nombor jisim72
nombor neutron41
jisim atom relatif
71.926367452 ± 0.000000878 Da
g-factor
-0.044046666666667 ± 0.0000066666666666667
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
14.025 ± 0.01 h
Spin3
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.53 ± 0.006
tarikh penemuan1939
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

73Ga

Nombor jisim73
nombor neutron42
jisim atom relatif
72.92517468 ± 0.0000018 Da
g-factor
0.13933333333333 ± 0.0013333333333333
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
4.86 ± 0.03 h
Spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1949
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

74Ga

Nombor jisim74
nombor neutron43
jisim atom relatif
73.926945725 ± 0.000003214 Da
g-factor
0 ± 0.026666666666667
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
8.12 ± 0.12 m
Spin3
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.55 ± 0.04
tarikh penemuan1956
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

75Ga

Nombor jisim75
nombor neutron44
jisim atom relatif
74.926504484 ± 0.00000072 Da
g-factor
1.2233333333333 ± 0.0026666666666667
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
126 ± 2 s
Spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
-0.285 ± 0.017
tarikh penemuan1960
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

76Ga

Nombor jisim76
nombor neutron45
jisim atom relatif
75.928827624 ± 0.0000021 Da
g-factor
-0.4725 ± 0.002
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
30.6 ± 0.6 s
Spin2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.33 ± 0.02
tarikh penemuan1961
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

77Ga

Nombor jisim77
nombor neutron46
jisim atom relatif
76.929154299 ± 0.0000026 Da
g-factor
1.3453333333333 ± 0.002
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
13.2 ± 0.2 s
Spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
-0.208 ± 0.013
tarikh penemuan1968
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

78Ga

Nombor jisim78
nombor neutron47
jisim atom relatif
77.931610854 ± 0.000001127 Da
g-factor
-0.607 ± 0.0025
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
5.09 ± 0.05 s
Spin2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.33 ± 0.02
tarikh penemuan1972
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

79Ga

Nombor jisim79
nombor neutron48
jisim atom relatif
78.932851582 ± 0.000001296 Da
g-factor
0.69733333333333 ± 0.002
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
2.848 ± 0.003 s
Spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.158 ± 0.01
tarikh penemuan1974
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)0.089%

80Ga

Nombor jisim80
nombor neutron49
jisim atom relatif
79.936420773 ± 0.000003103 Da
g-factor
0.006 ± 0.00066666666666667
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
1.9 ± 0.1 s
Spin6
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.38 ± 0.02
tarikh penemuan1974
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)0.86%

81Ga

Nombor jisim81
nombor neutron50
jisim atom relatif
80.938133841 ± 0.000003503 Da
g-factor
0.6984 ± 0.002
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
1.217 ± 0.005 s
Spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
-0.048 ± 0.008
tarikh penemuan1976
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)12.5%

82Ga

Nombor jisim82
nombor neutron51
jisim atom relatif
81.943176531 ± 0.000002604 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
600 ± 2 ms
Spin2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1976
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)21.2%
2n (2-neutron emission)

83Ga

Nombor jisim83
nombor neutron52
jisim atom relatif
82.9471203 ± 0.000002804 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
310 ± 0.7 ms
Spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1976
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)85%
2n (2-neutron emission)

84Ga

Nombor jisim84
nombor neutron53
jisim atom relatif
83.952663 ± 0.000032 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
97.6 ± 1.2 ms
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1991
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)43%
2n (2-neutron emission)1.6%

85Ga

Nombor jisim85
nombor neutron54
jisim atom relatif
84.957333 ± 0.00004 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
95.3 ± 1 ms
Spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1997
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)77%
2n (2-neutron emission)1.3%

86Ga

Nombor jisim86
nombor neutron55
jisim atom relatif
85.963757 ± 0.000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
49 ± 2 ms
Spin
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1997
parity

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)69%
2n (2-neutron emission)16.2%

87Ga

Nombor jisim87
nombor neutron56
jisim atom relatif
86.969007 ± 0.000537 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
29 ± 4 ms
Spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan2010
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)81%
2n (2-neutron emission)10.2%

88Ga

Nombor jisim88
nombor neutron57
jisim atom relatif
87.975963 ± 0.000537 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan
parity

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
Gallium crystals

sejarah

penemu atau perekaPaul Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran
tempat penemuanFrance
tarikh penemuan1875
EtimologiLatin: Gallia (France).
sebutanGAL-i-em (Inggeris)

sumber

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
natural abundance (lautan)
0.00003 mg/L
natural abundance (Tubuh manusia)
natural abundance (Meteoroid)
0.00076 %
natural abundance (Matahari)
0.000004 %
Abundance in Universe
0.000001 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s0.6906
2p3.9092
2s8.401
3d15.9067
3p14.7964
3s14.0038
4p24.7784
4s23.9332