Gadolinium

Gadolinium (Gd)

Soft silvery metallic element belonging to the lanthanoids. Seven natural, stable isotopes are known in addition to eleven artificial isotopes. Gd-155 and Gd-157 and the best neutron absorbers of all elements. Gadolinium compounds are used in electronics. Discovered by J.C.G Marignac in 1880.
Atomic Number64
Atomic Weight157.25
Mass Number158
Group
Period6
Blockf
Protons64 p+
Neutrons94 n0
Electrons64 e-
Gadolinium.jpg Animated Bohr Model of Gd (Gadolinium) Enhanced Bohr Model of Gd (Gadolinium) Bohr Model: Gd (Gadolinium) Orbital Diagram of Gd (Gadolinium)

Properties

Atomic Radius
180 pm
Molar Volume
Covalent Radius
169 pm
Metallic Radius
Ionic Radius
93.8 pm
Crystal Radius
107.8 pm
Van der Waals Radius
234 pm
Density
7.9 g/cm³
Energy
Proton Affinity
Electron Affinity
Ionization Energy
6.149796 eV/particle
Heat of Vaporization
398 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
Heat of Formation
397.5 kJ/mol
Electrons
Electron Shells2, 8, 18, 25, 9, 2
Valence Electrons3
Electron Configuration[Xe] 4f7 5d1 6s2
Oxidation States0, 1, 2, 3
Electronegativity
1.2
Electrophilicity
Phases
PhaseSolid
Gas Phase
Boiling Point
3,546.15 K
Melting Point
1,586.15 K
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
Triple Point
Visual
Color
Silver
Appearancesilvery white
Refractive Index
Thermodynamic Properties
Thermal Conductivity
Thermal Expansion
0.0000094 1/K
Molar Heat Capacity
37.03 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.236 J/(g⋅K)
Heat Capacity Ratio (Adiabatic Index)
Electrical Properties
TypeConductor
Electrical Conductivity
0.77 MS/m
Electrical Resistivity
0.0000013 m Ω
Superconducting Point
Magnetism
Typeferromagnetic
Magnetic Susceptibility (Mass)
Magnetic Susceptibility (Molar)
Magnetic Susceptibility (Volume)
Magnetic Ordering
Curie Point
292 K
Neel Point
Structure
Crystal StructureSimple Hexagonal (HEX)
Lattice Constant
3.64 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, 2 π/3
Mechanical Properties
Hardness
Bulk Modulus
38 GPa
Shear Modulus
22 GPa
Young Modulus
55 GPa
Poisson Ratio
0.26
Speed of Sound
2,680 m/s
Classification
CategoryLanthanides, Lanthanides
CAS Group
IUPAC Group
Glawe Number26
Mendeleev Number27
Pettifor Number27
Geochemical Classrare earth & related
Goldschmidt Classlitophile
Other
Gas Basicity
Dipole Polarizability
158 ± 20 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
Allotropes
Neutron Cross Section
49,000
Neutron Mass Absorption
7.3
Quantum Numbers9D2
Space Group194 (P63/mmc)

Isotopes of Gadolinium

Stable Isotopes7
Unstable Isotopes33
Radioactive Isotopes34

133Gd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
132.961288 ± 0.000537 Da
Mass Number133
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year
Parity+

133Gd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)%

134Gd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
133.955416 ± 0.000429 Da
Mass Number134
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year
Parity+

134Gd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)%

135Gd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
134.952496 ± 0.000429 Da
Mass Number135
G-Factor
Half Life
1.1 ± 0.2 s
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1996
Parity+

135Gd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)2%

136Gd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
135.9473 ± 0.00032 Da
Mass Number136
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2000
Parity+

136Gd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)%

137Gd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
136.94502 ± 0.00032 Da
Mass Number137
G-Factor
Half Life
2.2 ± 0.2 s
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1999
Parity

137Gd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)%

138Gd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
137.940247 ± 0.000215 Da
Mass Number138
G-Factor
0
Half Life
4.7 ± 0.9 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1985
Parity+

138Gd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

139Gd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
138.93813 ± 0.00021 Da
Mass Number139
G-Factor
Half Life
5.7 ± 0.3 s
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1983
Parity-

139Gd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)%

140Gd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
139.933674 ± 0.00003 Da
Mass Number140
G-Factor
0
Half Life
15.8 ± 0.4 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1985
Parity+

140Gd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
e+ (positron emission)67%
ϵ (electron capture)33%

141Gd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
140.932126 ± 0.000021213 Da
Mass Number141
G-Factor
Half Life
14 ± 4 s
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1986
Parity+

141Gd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)0.03%

142Gd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
141.928116 ± 0.00003 Da
Mass Number142
G-Factor
0
Half Life
70.2 ± 0.6 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1986
Parity+

142Gd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
ϵ (electron capture)52%
e+ (positron emission)48%

143Gd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
142.926750678 ± 0.000215032 Da
Mass Number143
G-Factor
Half Life
39 ± 2 s
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1975
Parity+

143Gd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)%
β+α (β+-delayed α emission)%

144Gd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
143.922963 ± 0.00003 Da
Mass Number144
G-Factor
0
Half Life
4.47 ± 0.06 m
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1968
Parity+

144Gd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

145Gd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
144.921710051 ± 0.000021165 Da
Mass Number145
G-Factor
Half Life
23 ± 0.4 m
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1959
Parity+

145Gd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

146Gd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
145.918318513 ± 0.000004376 Da
Mass Number146
G-Factor
0
Half Life
48.27 ± 0.09 d
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1957
Parity+

146Gd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

147Gd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
146.919101014 ± 0.000002025 Da
Mass Number147
G-Factor
0.29142857142857 ± 0.025714285714286
Half Life
38.06 ± 0.12 h
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1957
Parity-

147Gd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

148Gd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
147.918121414 ± 0.000001566 Da
Mass Number148
G-Factor
0
Half Life
71.3 ± 1 y
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1953
Parity+

148Gd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%
+ (double β+ decay)%

149Gd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
148.919347666 ± 0.000003553 Da
Mass Number149
G-Factor
0.25142857142857 ± 0.011428571428571
Half Life
9.28 ± 0.1 d
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1951
Parity-

149Gd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)4.3%

150Gd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
149.918663949 ± 0.0000065 Da
Mass Number150
G-Factor
0
Half Life
1.79 ± 0.08 My
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1953
Parity+

150Gd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%
+ (double β+ decay)%

151Gd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
150.920354922 ± 0.000003212 Da
Mass Number151
G-Factor
0.22 ± 0.017142857142857
Half Life
123.9 ± 1 d
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1950
Parity-

151Gd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%
α (α emission)1.1%

152Gd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
0.2 ± 0.03
Relative Atomic Mass
151.919798414 ± 0.000001081 Da
Mass Number152
G-Factor
0
Half Life
108 ± 8 Ty
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1938
Parity+

152Gd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%
+ (double β+ decay)%

153Gd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
152.921756945 ± 0.000001075 Da
Mass Number153
G-Factor
0.25333333333333 ± 0.053333333333333
Half Life
240.6 ± 0.7 d
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1947
Parity-

153Gd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

154Gd

Abundance
2.18 ± 0.02
Relative Atomic Mass
153.920872974 ± 0.000001066 Da
Mass Number154
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1938
Parity+

155Gd

Abundance
14.8 ± 0.09
Relative Atomic Mass
154.922629356 ± 0.000001055 Da
Mass Number155
G-Factor
-0.17273333333333 ± 0.00026666666666667
Half Life
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
1.27 ± 0.03
Discovery Year1933
Parity-

156Gd

Abundance
20.47 ± 0.03
Relative Atomic Mass
155.92213012 ± 0.000001054 Da
Mass Number156
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1933
Parity+

157Gd

Abundance
15.65 ± 0.04
Relative Atomic Mass
156.923967424 ± 0.000001048 Da
Mass Number157
G-Factor
-0.22653333333333 ± 0.0004
Half Life
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
1.35 ± 0.03
Discovery Year1933
Parity-

158Gd

Abundance
24.84 ± 0.08
Relative Atomic Mass
157.9241112 ± 0.000001048 Da
Mass Number158
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1933
Parity+

159Gd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
158.926395822 ± 0.000001051 Da
Mass Number159
G-Factor
-0.29333333333333 ± 0.02
Half Life
18.479 ± 0.004 h
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1949
Parity-

159Gd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

160Gd

Abundance
21.86 ± 0.03
Relative Atomic Mass
159.927061202 ± 0.000001206 Da
Mass Number160
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1933
Parity+

160Gd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
(double β decay)%

161Gd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
160.929676267 ± 0.000001614 Da
Mass Number161
G-Factor
Half Life
3.646 ± 0.003 m
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1949
Parity-

161Gd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

162Gd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
161.930991812 ± 0.000004254 Da
Mass Number162
G-Factor
0
Half Life
8.4 ± 0.2 m
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1967
Parity+

162Gd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

163Gd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
162.93409664 ± 0.000000855 Da
Mass Number163
G-Factor
Half Life
68 ± 3 s
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1982
Parity+

163Gd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

164Gd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
163.935916193 ± 0.000001073 Da
Mass Number164
G-Factor
0
Half Life
45 ± 3 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1988
Parity+

164Gd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

165Gd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
164.93931708 ± 0.0000014 Da
Mass Number165
G-Factor
Half Life
11.6 ± 1 s
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1998
Parity-

165Gd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

166Gd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
165.941630413 ± 0.0000017 Da
Mass Number166
G-Factor
0
Half Life
5.1 ± 0.8 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2005
Parity+

166Gd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

167Gd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
166.945490012 ± 0.000005596 Da
Mass Number167
G-Factor
Half Life
4.2 ± 0.3 s
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2012
Parity-

167Gd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

168Gd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
167.948309 ± 0.000322 Da
Mass Number168
G-Factor
0
Half Life
3.03 ± 0.16 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1985
Parity+

168Gd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

169Gd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
168.952882 ± 0.000429 Da
Mass Number169
G-Factor
Half Life
750 ± 210 ms
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2012
Parity-

169Gd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%

170Gd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
169.956146 ± 0.000537 Da
Mass Number170
G-Factor
0
Half Life
420 ± 130 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2012
Parity+

170Gd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%

171Gd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
170.961127 ± 0.000537 Da
Mass Number171
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2018
Parity+

171Gd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%

172Gd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
171.964605 ± 0.000322 Da
Mass Number172
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2018
Parity+

172Gd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%

History

Gadolinium was first detected spectroscopically in 1880 by the Swiss chemist Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac who separated its oxide. He observed spectroscopic lines due to gadolinium in samples of gadolinite and in the separate mineral cerite. The metal was isolated by Paul Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran in 1886. From gadolinite, a mineral named for Gadolin, a Finnish chemist

DiscoverersJean de Marignac
Discovery LocationSwitzerland
Discovery Year1880
Etymology (Name Origin)Named after the mineral gadolinite.
PronunciationGAD-eh-LIN-i-em (English)
Gadolinium is considered to be moderately toxic
Gadolinium has the highest neutron cross-section among any stable nuclides

Uses

Gadolinium is used to make gadolinium yttrium garnets which have microwave applications. It is also used in intravenous radiocontrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Gadolinium compounds are used for making green phosphors for color TV tubes, and in manufacturing compact discs. Used in steel alloying agents and the manufacture of electronic components.

Sources

Found with other rare earths in gadolinite and monazite sand.

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
6.2 mg/kg
Abundance in Oceans
0.0000007 mg/L
Abundance in Human Body
Abundance in Meteor
0.000023 %
Abundance in Sun
0.0000002 %
Abundance in Universe
0.0000002 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s1.2565
2p4.2946
2s16.783
3d13.723
3p19.8508
3s20.2903
4d34.3664
4f38.9864
4p31.3532
4s30.556
5p47.236
5s45.118
6s55.7854