Gadolinij[um]

Gadolinij[um] (Gd)

hemijski element sa simbolom Gd i atomskim brojem 64
Atomic Number64
Atomic Weight157.25
Maseni broj158
Group
Period6
Blockf
Proton64 p+
Neutron94 n0
Elektron64 e-
Animated Bohrov model atoma of Gd (Gadolinij[um])

Physical Property

Atomski Radijus
180 pm
Molarni volumen
covalent radius
169 pm
Metallic Radius
Ionski radijus
93,8 pm
Crystal Radius
107,8 pm
Van der Waalsov radijus
234 pm
gustoća
7,9 g/cm³
Atomic Radii Of The Elements: Gadolinij[um]0102030405060708090100110120130140150160170180190200210220230240pmAtomski RadijusCovalent RadiusMetallic RadiusVan der Waalsov radijus

Chemical Property

energija
proton affinity
electron affinity
ionization energy
6,149796 eV/particle
ionization energy of Gd (Gadolinij[um])
Toplota isparavanja
398 kJ/mol
toplota topljenja
standard enthalpy of formation
397,5 kJ/mol
Elektron
electron shell2, 8, 18, 25, 9, 2
Bohrov model atoma: Gd (Gadolinij[um])
Valentni elektron2
Lewis structure: Gd (Gadolinij[um])
electron configuration[Xe] 4f7 5d1 6s2
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p6 4f7 5d1 6s2
Enhanced Bohrov model atoma of Gd (Gadolinij[um])
Orbital Diagram of Gd (Gadolinij[um])
oksidacijsko stanje0, 1, 2, 3
Elektronegativnost
1.2
Electrophilicity Index
fundamental state of matter
agregatno stanjeSolid
gaseous state of matter
Boiling Point
3.546,15 K
Melting Point
1.586,15 K
critical pressure
Kritična temperatura
Trojna tačka
appearance
boja
Silver
appearancesilvery white
Indeks prelamanja
thermodynamic material property
Thermal Conductivity
thermal expansion
0,0000094 1/K
molar heat capacity
37,03 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0,236 J/(g⋅K)
heat capacity ratio
electrical properties
typeConductor
Specifična električna provodljivost
0,77 MS/m
electrical resistivity
0,0000013 m Ω
Superprovodljivost
Magnetizam
typeferromagnetic
magnetic susceptibility (Mass)
magnetic susceptibility (Molar)
magnetic susceptibility (Volume)
magnetic ordering
Kirijeva tačka
292 K
Néel temperature
struktura
Crystal StructureSimple Hexagonal (HEX)
lattice constant
3,64 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, 2 π/3
mechanical property
Tvrdoća
bulk modulus
38 GPa
shear modulus
22 GPa
Young's modulus
55 GPa
Poisson's ratio
0,26
Brzina zvuka
2.680 m/s
klasifikacija
CategoryLanthanides, Lanthanides
CAS Group
IUPAC Group
Glawe Number26
Mendeleev Number27
Pettifor Number27
Geochemical Classrare earth & related
Goldschmidt classificationlitophile

other

Gas Basicity
polarizability
158 ± 20 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
allotrope
Neutron cross section
49.000
Neutron Mass Absorption
7,3
Kvantni brojevi9D2
space group194 (P63/mmc)

Isotopes of Gadolinium

Stable Isotopes5
Unstable Isotopes35
Natural Isotopes7
Isotopic Composition15824.84%15824.84%16021.86%16021.86%15620.47%15620.47%15514.80%15514.80%15715.65%15715.65%1542.18%1542.18%1520.20%1520.20%

133Gd

Maseni broj133
broj neutrona69
relative atomic mass
132,961288 ± 0,000537 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

134Gd

Maseni broj134
broj neutrona70
relative atomic mass
133,955416 ± 0,000429 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

135Gd

Maseni broj135
broj neutrona71
relative atomic mass
134,952496 ± 0,000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
1,1 ± 0,2 s
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića1996
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)2%

136Gd

Maseni broj136
broj neutrona72
relative atomic mass
135,9473 ± 0,00032 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića2000
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

137Gd

Maseni broj137
broj neutrona73
relative atomic mass
136,94502 ± 0,00032 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
2,2 ± 0,2 s
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića1999
parity

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

138Gd

Maseni broj138
broj neutrona74
relative atomic mass
137,940247 ± 0,000215 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
4,7 ± 0,9 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1985
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

139Gd

Maseni broj139
broj neutrona75
relative atomic mass
138,93813 ± 0,00021 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
5,7 ± 0,3 s
spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića1983
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

140Gd

Maseni broj140
broj neutrona76
relative atomic mass
139,933674 ± 0,00003 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
15,8 ± 0,4 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1985
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
e+ (positron emission)67%
ϵ (electron capture)33%

141Gd

Maseni broj141
broj neutrona77
relative atomic mass
140,932126 ± 0,000021213 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
14 ± 4 s
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1986
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)0.03%

142Gd

Maseni broj142
broj neutrona78
relative atomic mass
141,928116 ± 0,00003 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
70,2 ± 0,6 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1986
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
ϵ (electron capture)52%
e+ (positron emission)48%

143Gd

Maseni broj143
broj neutrona79
relative atomic mass
142,926750678 ± 0,000215032 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
39 ± 2 s
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1975
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)
β+α (β+-delayed α emission)

144Gd

Maseni broj144
broj neutrona80
relative atomic mass
143,922963 ± 0,00003 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
4,47 ± 0,06 m
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1968
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

145Gd

Maseni broj145
broj neutrona81
relative atomic mass
144,921710051 ± 0,000021165 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
23 ± 0,4 m
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1959
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

146Gd

Maseni broj146
broj neutrona82
relative atomic mass
145,918318513 ± 0,000004376 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
48,27 ± 0,09 d
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1957
parity+

decay modeintensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

147Gd

Maseni broj147
broj neutrona83
relative atomic mass
146,919101014 ± 0,000002025 Da
g-factor
0,29142857142857 ± 0,025714285714286
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
38,06 ± 0,12 h
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića1957
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

148Gd

Maseni broj148
broj neutrona84
relative atomic mass
147,918121414 ± 0,000001566 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
71,3 ± 1 y
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1953
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
+ (double β+ decay)

149Gd

Maseni broj149
broj neutrona85
relative atomic mass
148,919347666 ± 0,000003553 Da
g-factor
0,25142857142857 ± 0,011428571428571
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
9,28 ± 0,1 d
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića1951
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)4.3%

150Gd

Maseni broj150
broj neutrona86
relative atomic mass
149,918663949 ± 0,0000065 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
1,79 ± 0,08 My
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1953
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
+ (double β+ decay)

151Gd

Maseni broj151
broj neutrona87
relative atomic mass
150,920354922 ± 0,000003212 Da
g-factor
0,22 ± 0,017142857142857
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
123,9 ± 1 d
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića1950
parity-

decay modeintensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%
α (α emission)1.1%

152Gd

Maseni broj152
broj neutrona88
relative atomic mass
151,919798414 ± 0,000001081 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
0,2 ± 0,03
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
108 ± 8 Ty
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1938
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
+ (double β+ decay)

153Gd

Maseni broj153
broj neutrona89
relative atomic mass
152,921756945 ± 0,000001075 Da
g-factor
0,25333333333333 ± 0,053333333333333
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
240,6 ± 0,7 d
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića1947
parity-

decay modeintensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

154Gd

Maseni broj154
broj neutrona90
relative atomic mass
153,920872974 ± 0,000001066 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
2,18 ± 0,02
Radioaktivnoststable isotope
Vrijeme poluraspadaNot Radioactive ☢️
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1938
parity+

155Gd

Maseni broj155
broj neutrona91
relative atomic mass
154,922629356 ± 0,000001055 Da
g-factor
-0,17273333333333 ± 0,00026666666666667
natural abundance
14,8 ± 0,09
Radioaktivnoststable isotope
Vrijeme poluraspadaNot Radioactive ☢️
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
1,27 ± 0,03
datum otkrića1933
parity-

156Gd

Maseni broj156
broj neutrona92
relative atomic mass
155,92213012 ± 0,000001054 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
20,47 ± 0,03
Radioaktivnoststable isotope
Vrijeme poluraspadaNot Radioactive ☢️
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1933
parity+

157Gd

Maseni broj157
broj neutrona93
relative atomic mass
156,923967424 ± 0,000001048 Da
g-factor
-0,22653333333333 ± 0,0004
natural abundance
15,65 ± 0,04
Radioaktivnoststable isotope
Vrijeme poluraspadaNot Radioactive ☢️
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
1,35 ± 0,03
datum otkrića1933
parity-

158Gd

Maseni broj158
broj neutrona94
relative atomic mass
157,9241112 ± 0,000001048 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
24,84 ± 0,08
Radioaktivnoststable isotope
Vrijeme poluraspadaNot Radioactive ☢️
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1933
parity+

159Gd

Maseni broj159
broj neutrona95
relative atomic mass
158,926395822 ± 0,000001051 Da
g-factor
-0,29333333333333 ± 0,02
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
18,479 ± 0,004 h
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića1949
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

160Gd

Maseni broj160
broj neutrona96
relative atomic mass
159,927061202 ± 0,000001206 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
21,86 ± 0,03
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1933
parity+

decay modeintensity
(double β decay)

161Gd

Maseni broj161
broj neutrona97
relative atomic mass
160,929676267 ± 0,000001614 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
3,646 ± 0,003 m
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića1949
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

162Gd

Maseni broj162
broj neutrona98
relative atomic mass
161,930991812 ± 0,000004254 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
8,4 ± 0,2 m
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1967
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

163Gd

Maseni broj163
broj neutrona99
relative atomic mass
162,93409664 ± 0,000000855 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
68 ± 3 s
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića1982
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

164Gd

Maseni broj164
broj neutrona100
relative atomic mass
163,935916193 ± 0,000001073 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
45 ± 3 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1988
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

165Gd

Maseni broj165
broj neutrona101
relative atomic mass
164,93931708 ± 0,0000014 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
11,6 ± 1 s
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1998
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

166Gd

Maseni broj166
broj neutrona102
relative atomic mass
165,941630413 ± 0,0000017 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
5,1 ± 0,8 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića2005
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

167Gd

Maseni broj167
broj neutrona103
relative atomic mass
166,945490012 ± 0,000005596 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
4,2 ± 0,3 s
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića2012
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

168Gd

Maseni broj168
broj neutrona104
relative atomic mass
167,948309 ± 0,000322 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
3,03 ± 0,16 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1985
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

169Gd

Maseni broj169
broj neutrona105
relative atomic mass
168,952882 ± 0,000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
750 ± 210 ms
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića2012
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

170Gd

Maseni broj170
broj neutrona106
relative atomic mass
169,956146 ± 0,000537 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
420 ± 130 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića2012
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

171Gd

Maseni broj171
broj neutrona107
relative atomic mass
170,961127 ± 0,000537 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića2018
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

172Gd

Maseni broj172
broj neutrona108
relative atomic mass
171,964605 ± 0,000322 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića2018
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
Gadolinium

historija

otkrivač ili izumiteljJean de Marignac
mjesto otkrićaSwitzerland
datum otkrića1880
EtimologijaNamed after the mineral gadolinite.
pronunciationGAD-eh-LIN-i-em (engleski)

izvor

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
6,2 mg/kg
natural abundance (okean)
0,0000007 mg/L
natural abundance (ljudsko tijelo)
natural abundance (Meteoroidi)
0,000023 %
natural abundance (Sunce)
0,0000002 %
Abundance in Universe
0,0000002 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s1.2565
2p4.2946
2s16.783
3d13.723
3p19.8508
3s20.2903
4d34.3664
4f38.9864
4p31.3532
4s30.556
5p47.236
5s45.118
6s55.7854