ગૅડોલિનિયમનો

ગૅડોલિનિયમનો (Gd)

element with the atomic number of 64
Atomic Number64
Atomic Weight157.25
mass number158
Group
Period6
Blockf
પ્રોટોન64 p+
neutron94 n0
ઈલેક્ટ્રોન64 e-
Animated બૉહરનો સિદ્ધાંત of Gd (ગૅડોલિનિયમનો)

Physical Property

Atomic Radius
180 pm
molar volume
Covalent Radius
169 pm
Metallic Radius
ionic radius
93.8 pm
Crystal Radius
107.8 pm
Van der Waals radius
234 pm
density
7.9 g/cm³
Atomic Radii Of The Elements: ગૅડોલિનિયમનો0102030405060708090100110120130140150160170180190200210220230240pmAtomic RadiusCovalent RadiusMetallic RadiusVan der Waals radius

રાસાયણિક ગુણધર્મ

ઉર્જા
proton affinity
electron affinity
ionization energy
6.149796 eV/particle
ionization energy of Gd (ગૅડોલિનિયમનો)
enthalpy of vaporization
398 kJ/mol
enthalpy of fusion
standard enthalpy of formation
397.5 kJ/mol
ઈલેક્ટ્રોન
electron shell2, 8, 18, 25, 9, 2
બૉહરનો સિદ્ધાંત: Gd (ગૅડોલિનિયમનો)
valence electron2
Lewis structure: Gd (ગૅડોલિનિયમનો)
electron configuration[Xe] 4f7 5d1 6s2
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p6 4f7 5d1 6s2
Enhanced બૉહરનો સિદ્ધાંત of Gd (ગૅડોલિનિયમનો)
Orbital Diagram of Gd (ગૅડોલિનિયમનો)
oxidation number0, 1, 2, 3
વિદ્યુતઋણતા
1.2
Electrophilicity Index
fundamental state of matter
phase of matterSolid
gaseous state of matter
Boiling Point
3,546.15 K
Melting Point
1,586.15 K
critical pressure
critical temperature
triple point
appearance
color
Silver
appearancesilvery white
refractive index
thermodynamic material property
Thermal Conductivity
thermal expansion
0.0000094 1/K
molar heat capacity
37.03 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.236 J/(g⋅K)
heat capacity ratio
electrical properties
typeConductor
electrical conductivity
0.77 MS/m
electrical resistivity
0.0000013 m Ω
superconductivity
magnetism
typeferromagnetic
magnetic susceptibility (Mass)
magnetic susceptibility (Molar)
magnetic susceptibility (Volume)
magnetic ordering
Curie temperature
292 K
Néel temperature
structure
Crystal StructureSimple Hexagonal (HEX)
lattice constant
3.64 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, 2 π/3
mechanical property
hardness
bulk modulus
38 GPa
shear modulus
22 GPa
Young's modulus
55 GPa
Poisson's ratio
0.26
અવાજની ઝડપ
2,680 m/s
classification
CategoryLanthanides, Lanthanides
CAS Group
IUPAC Group
Glawe Number26
Mendeleev Number27
Pettifor Number27
Geochemical Classrare earth & related
Goldschmidt classificationlitophile

other

Gas Basicity
polarizability
158 ± 20 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
allotrope
Neutron cross section
49,000
Neutron Mass Absorption
7.3
quantum number9D2
space group194 (P63/mmc)

Isotopes of Gadolinium

Stable Isotopes5
Unstable Isotopes35
Natural Isotopes7
Isotopic Composition15824.84%15824.84%16021.86%16021.86%15620.47%15620.47%15514.80%15514.80%15715.65%15715.65%1542.18%1542.18%1520.20%1520.20%

133Gd

mass number133
neutron number69
relative atomic mass
132.961288 ± 0.000537 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
પ્રચક્રણ5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
શોધની તારીખ
પૅરિટી+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

134Gd

mass number134
neutron number70
relative atomic mass
133.955416 ± 0.000429 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
પ્રચક્રણ0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
શોધની તારીખ
પૅરિટી+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

135Gd

mass number135
neutron number71
relative atomic mass
134.952496 ± 0.000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
1.1 ± 0.2 s
પ્રચક્રણ5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
શોધની તારીખ1996
પૅરિટી+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)2%

136Gd

mass number136
neutron number72
relative atomic mass
135.9473 ± 0.00032 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
પ્રચક્રણ0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
શોધની તારીખ2000
પૅરિટી+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

137Gd

mass number137
neutron number73
relative atomic mass
136.94502 ± 0.00032 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
2.2 ± 0.2 s
પ્રચક્રણ7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
શોધની તારીખ1999
પૅરિટી

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

138Gd

mass number138
neutron number74
relative atomic mass
137.940247 ± 0.000215 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
4.7 ± 0.9 s
પ્રચક્રણ0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
શોધની તારીખ1985
પૅરિટી+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

139Gd

mass number139
neutron number75
relative atomic mass
138.93813 ± 0.00021 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
5.7 ± 0.3 s
પ્રચક્રણ9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
શોધની તારીખ1983
પૅરિટી-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

140Gd

mass number140
neutron number76
relative atomic mass
139.933674 ± 0.00003 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
15.8 ± 0.4 s
પ્રચક્રણ0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
શોધની તારીખ1985
પૅરિટી+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
e+ (positron emission)67%
ϵ (electron capture)33%

141Gd

mass number141
neutron number77
relative atomic mass
140.932126 ± 0.000021213 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
14 ± 4 s
પ્રચક્રણ1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
શોધની તારીખ1986
પૅરિટી+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)0.03%

142Gd

mass number142
neutron number78
relative atomic mass
141.928116 ± 0.00003 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
70.2 ± 0.6 s
પ્રચક્રણ0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
શોધની તારીખ1986
પૅરિટી+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
ϵ (electron capture)52%
e+ (positron emission)48%

143Gd

mass number143
neutron number79
relative atomic mass
142.926750678 ± 0.000215032 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
39 ± 2 s
પ્રચક્રણ1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
શોધની તારીખ1975
પૅરિટી+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)
β+α (β+-delayed α emission)

144Gd

mass number144
neutron number80
relative atomic mass
143.922963 ± 0.00003 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
4.47 ± 0.06 m
પ્રચક્રણ0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
શોધની તારીખ1968
પૅરિટી+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

145Gd

mass number145
neutron number81
relative atomic mass
144.921710051 ± 0.000021165 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
23 ± 0.4 m
પ્રચક્રણ1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
શોધની તારીખ1959
પૅરિટી+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

146Gd

mass number146
neutron number82
relative atomic mass
145.918318513 ± 0.000004376 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
48.27 ± 0.09 d
પ્રચક્રણ0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
શોધની તારીખ1957
પૅરિટી+

decay modeintensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

147Gd

mass number147
neutron number83
relative atomic mass
146.919101014 ± 0.000002025 Da
g-factor
0.29142857142857 ± 0.025714285714286
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
38.06 ± 0.12 h
પ્રચક્રણ7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
શોધની તારીખ1957
પૅરિટી-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

148Gd

mass number148
neutron number84
relative atomic mass
147.918121414 ± 0.000001566 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
71.3 ± 1 y
પ્રચક્રણ0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
શોધની તારીખ1953
પૅરિટી+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
+ (double β+ decay)

149Gd

mass number149
neutron number85
relative atomic mass
148.919347666 ± 0.000003553 Da
g-factor
0.25142857142857 ± 0.011428571428571
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
9.28 ± 0.1 d
પ્રચક્રણ7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
શોધની તારીખ1951
પૅરિટી-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)4.3%

150Gd

mass number150
neutron number86
relative atomic mass
149.918663949 ± 0.0000065 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
1.79 ± 0.08 My
પ્રચક્રણ0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
શોધની તારીખ1953
પૅરિટી+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
+ (double β+ decay)

151Gd

mass number151
neutron number87
relative atomic mass
150.920354922 ± 0.000003212 Da
g-factor
0.22 ± 0.017142857142857
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
123.9 ± 1 d
પ્રચક્રણ7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
શોધની તારીખ1950
પૅરિટી-

decay modeintensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%
α (α emission)1.1%

152Gd

mass number152
neutron number88
relative atomic mass
151.919798414 ± 0.000001081 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
0.2 ± 0.03
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
108 ± 8 Ty
પ્રચક્રણ0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
શોધની તારીખ1938
પૅરિટી+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
+ (double β+ decay)

153Gd

mass number153
neutron number89
relative atomic mass
152.921756945 ± 0.000001075 Da
g-factor
0.25333333333333 ± 0.053333333333333
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
240.6 ± 0.7 d
પ્રચક્રણ3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
શોધની તારીખ1947
પૅરિટી-

decay modeintensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

154Gd

mass number154
neutron number90
relative atomic mass
153.920872974 ± 0.000001066 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
2.18 ± 0.02
radioactivitystable isotope
half-lifeNot Radioactive ☢️
પ્રચક્રણ0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
શોધની તારીખ1938
પૅરિટી+

155Gd

mass number155
neutron number91
relative atomic mass
154.922629356 ± 0.000001055 Da
g-factor
-0.17273333333333 ± 0.00026666666666667
natural abundance
14.8 ± 0.09
radioactivitystable isotope
half-lifeNot Radioactive ☢️
પ્રચક્રણ3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
1.27 ± 0.03
શોધની તારીખ1933
પૅરિટી-

156Gd

mass number156
neutron number92
relative atomic mass
155.92213012 ± 0.000001054 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
20.47 ± 0.03
radioactivitystable isotope
half-lifeNot Radioactive ☢️
પ્રચક્રણ0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
શોધની તારીખ1933
પૅરિટી+

157Gd

mass number157
neutron number93
relative atomic mass
156.923967424 ± 0.000001048 Da
g-factor
-0.22653333333333 ± 0.0004
natural abundance
15.65 ± 0.04
radioactivitystable isotope
half-lifeNot Radioactive ☢️
પ્રચક્રણ3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
1.35 ± 0.03
શોધની તારીખ1933
પૅરિટી-

158Gd

mass number158
neutron number94
relative atomic mass
157.9241112 ± 0.000001048 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
24.84 ± 0.08
radioactivitystable isotope
half-lifeNot Radioactive ☢️
પ્રચક્રણ0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
શોધની તારીખ1933
પૅરિટી+

159Gd

mass number159
neutron number95
relative atomic mass
158.926395822 ± 0.000001051 Da
g-factor
-0.29333333333333 ± 0.02
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
18.479 ± 0.004 h
પ્રચક્રણ3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
શોધની તારીખ1949
પૅરિટી-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

160Gd

mass number160
neutron number96
relative atomic mass
159.927061202 ± 0.000001206 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
21.86 ± 0.03
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
પ્રચક્રણ0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
શોધની તારીખ1933
પૅરિટી+

decay modeintensity
(double β decay)

161Gd

mass number161
neutron number97
relative atomic mass
160.929676267 ± 0.000001614 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
3.646 ± 0.003 m
પ્રચક્રણ5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
શોધની તારીખ1949
પૅરિટી-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

162Gd

mass number162
neutron number98
relative atomic mass
161.930991812 ± 0.000004254 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
8.4 ± 0.2 m
પ્રચક્રણ0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
શોધની તારીખ1967
પૅરિટી+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

163Gd

mass number163
neutron number99
relative atomic mass
162.93409664 ± 0.000000855 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
68 ± 3 s
પ્રચક્રણ7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
શોધની તારીખ1982
પૅરિટી+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

164Gd

mass number164
neutron number100
relative atomic mass
163.935916193 ± 0.000001073 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
45 ± 3 s
પ્રચક્રણ0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
શોધની તારીખ1988
પૅરિટી+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

165Gd

mass number165
neutron number101
relative atomic mass
164.93931708 ± 0.0000014 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
11.6 ± 1 s
પ્રચક્રણ1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
શોધની તારીખ1998
પૅરિટી-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

166Gd

mass number166
neutron number102
relative atomic mass
165.941630413 ± 0.0000017 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
5.1 ± 0.8 s
પ્રચક્રણ0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
શોધની તારીખ2005
પૅરિટી+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

167Gd

mass number167
neutron number103
relative atomic mass
166.945490012 ± 0.000005596 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
4.2 ± 0.3 s
પ્રચક્રણ5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
શોધની તારીખ2012
પૅરિટી-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

168Gd

mass number168
neutron number104
relative atomic mass
167.948309 ± 0.000322 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
3.03 ± 0.16 s
પ્રચક્રણ0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
શોધની તારીખ1985
પૅરિટી+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

169Gd

mass number169
neutron number105
relative atomic mass
168.952882 ± 0.000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
750 ± 210 ms
પ્રચક્રણ7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
શોધની તારીખ2012
પૅરિટી-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

170Gd

mass number170
neutron number106
relative atomic mass
169.956146 ± 0.000537 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
420 ± 130 ms
પ્રચક્રણ0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
શોધની તારીખ2012
પૅરિટી+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

171Gd

mass number171
neutron number107
relative atomic mass
170.961127 ± 0.000537 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
પ્રચક્રણ9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
શોધની તારીખ2018
પૅરિટી+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

172Gd

mass number172
neutron number108
relative atomic mass
171.964605 ± 0.000322 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
પ્રચક્રણ0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
શોધની તારીખ2018
પૅરિટી+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
Gadolinium

ઈતિહાસ

શોધક અથવા સંશોધકJean de Marignac
શોધનું સ્થળSwitzerland
શોધની તારીખ1880
etymologyNamed after the mineral gadolinite.
ઉચ્ચારGAD-eh-LIN-i-em (અંગ્રેજી)

source

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
6.2 mg/kg
natural abundance (ocean)
0.0000007 mg/L
natural abundance (માનવ શરીર)
natural abundance (ઉલ્કા)
0.000023 %
natural abundance (સૂર્ય)
0.0000002 %
Abundance in Universe
0.0000002 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s1.2565
2p4.2946
2s16.783
3d13.723
3p19.8508
3s20.2903
4d34.3664
4f38.9864
4p31.3532
4s30.556
5p47.236
5s45.118
6s55.7854