Germanium

Germanium (Ge)

Lustrous hard metalloid element, belongs to group 14 of the periodic table. Forms a large number of organometallic compounds. Predicted by Mendeleev in 1871, it was actually found in 1886 by Winkler.
Atomic Number32
Atomic Weight72.63
Mass Number74
Group14
Period4
Blockp
Protons32 p+
Neutrons42 n0
Electrons32 e-
Germanium element.jpg Animated Bohr Model Enhanced Bohr Model Bohr Model Orbital Diagram

Properties

Atomic Radius
125 pm
Atomic Volume
Covalent Radius
121 pm
Metallic Radius
124 pm
Ionic Radius
73 pm
Crystal Radius
87 pm
Van der Waals radius
211 pm
Density
5.3234 g/cm³
Boiling Point
3,103 K
Melting Point
1,210.6 K
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 4
Electronegativity
2.01
Electrophilicity
1.5636638275958 eV/particle
Proton Affinity
Electron Affinity
1.232712 eV/particle
Ionization Potential
7.899435 eV/particle
Heat of Vaporization
328 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
36.8 kJ/mol
Heat of Formation
372 kJ/mol
Molar Heat Capacity
23.222 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
Thermal Conductivity
60.2 W/(m K)
Gas Basicity
Dipole Polarizability
40 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
354 a₀
Oxidation States-4, 1, 2, 3, 4
Color
Gray
Crystal StructureFace Centered Cubic (DIA)
Lattice Constant
5.66 Å
Bulk Modulus
Electrical Resistivity
Electron Configuration[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2
Magnetic Ordering
Magnetic Susceptibility
PhaseSolid
Poisson Ratio
Shear Modulus
Young's Modulus
Allotropes
Alternate Names
Adiabatic Index
Appearance
Electric Conductivity
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
Curie Point
Electrical
Hardness
Magnetic Susceptibility
Magnetic
Neel Point
Neutron Cross Section
Neutron Mass Absorption
Gas Phase
Quantum Numbers
Refractive Index
Space Group
Speed of Sound
Superconducting Point
Thermal Expansion
Valence Electrons
Classification
CategoryMetalloids, Metalloids
CAS GroupIVB
IUPAC GroupIVA
Glawe Number84
Mendeleev Number89
Pettifor Number84
Geochemical Class
Goldschmidt Classchalcophile
Radioactivity
RadioactiveNo
Decay Mode
Half-Life
Lifetime
Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
1.5 mg/kg
Abundance in Oceans
0.00005 mg/L
Abundance in Human Body
Abundance in Meteor
Abundance in Sun
Abundance in Universe0.00002%

Isotopes of Germanium

Stable Isotopes
70Ge 72Ge 73Ge 74Ge 76Ge
Unstable Isotopes
58Ge 59Ge 60Ge 61Ge 62Ge 63Ge 64Ge 65Ge 66Ge 67Ge 68Ge 69Ge 71Ge 75Ge 77Ge 78Ge 79Ge 80Ge 81Ge 82Ge 83Ge 84Ge 85Ge 86Ge 87Ge 88Ge 89Ge

History

In 1869, Dmitri Mendeleev predicted its existence and some of its properties based on its position on his periodic table and called the element eka-silicon. In 1886, Clemens Winkler found the new element along with silver and sulfur, in a rare mineral called argyrodite. The first silicon-germanium alloys were obtained in 1955. From the Latin word Germania, Germany

DiscoverersClemens Winkler
Discovery LocationGermany
Discovery Year1886
Name OriginLatin: Germania (Germany).
Germanium is not known to be toxic
Germanium and the oxide are transparent to infrared radiation

Uses

The most common use of germanium is as a semiconductor in electronics. Germanium is used in transistors and in integrated circuits. It is used as an alloying agent and as a catalyst. It is also used in infrared spectroscopes and infrared detectors. Widely used in semiconductors. It is a good semiconductor when combined with tiny amounts of phosphorus, arsenic, gallium, and antimony.

Sources

Obtained from refining copper, zinc and lead.