Germanium

Germanium (Ge)

chemical element with symbol Ge and atomic number 32
Atomic Number32
Atomic Weight72.63
Numri i masës74
Group14
Period4
Blockp
protoni32 p+
neutroni42 n0
elektroni32 e-
Animated Bohr model of Ge (Germanium)

Tipar Fizik

Atomic Radius
125 pm
molar volume
covalent radius
121 pm
Metallic Radius
124 pm
ionic radius
73 pm
Crystal Radius
87 pm
Van der Waals radius
211 pm
density
5,3234 g/cm³
Atomic Radii Of The Elements: Germanium020406080100120140160180200220pmAtomic RadiusCovalent RadiusMetallic RadiusVan der Waals radius

Chemical Property

energjia
proton affinity
electron affinity
1,232712 eV/particle
ionization energy
7,899435 eV/particle
ionization energy of Ge (Germanium)
enthalpy of vaporization
328 kJ/mol
enthalpy of fusion
36,8 kJ/mol
standard enthalpy of formation
372 kJ/mol
elektroni
electron shell2, 8, 18, 4
Bohr model: Ge (Germanium)
valence electron4
Lewis structure: Ge (Germanium)
konfigurimi i elektronit[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p2
Enhanced Bohr model of Ge (Germanium)
Orbital Diagram of Ge (Germanium)
oxidation number-4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4
Elektronegativiteti
2.01
Electrophilicity Index
1,5636638275958255 eV/particle
fundamental state of matter
gjendja agregate e materiesSolid
gaseous state of matter
Boiling Point
3 106,15 K
Melting Point
1 211,4 K
critical pressure
critical temperature
9 802,15 K
triple point
appearance
Ngjyra
Gray
appearancegrayish-white
refractive index
thermodynamic material property
Thermal Conductivity
60,2 W/(m K)
thermal expansion
0,000006 1/K
molar heat capacity
23,222 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
heat capacity ratio
electrical properties
typeSemiconductor
electrical conductivity
0,002 MS/m
electrical resistivity
0,0005 m Ω
Superpërcjellshmëria
Magnetizimi
typediamagnetic
magnetic susceptibility (Mass)
-0,0000000015 m³/Kg
magnetic susceptibility (Molar)
-0,000000000109 m³/mol
magnetic susceptibility (Volume)
-0,00000798
magnetic ordering
Curie temperature
Néel temperature
strukturë
Crystal StructureFace Centered Cubic (DIA)
lattice constant
5,66 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, π/2
mechanical property
hardness
6 MPa
bulk modulus
shear modulus
Young's modulus
Poisson's ratio
Shpejtësia e zërit
5 400 m/s
klasifikim
CategoryMetalloids, Metalloids
CAS GroupIVB
IUPAC GroupIVA
Glawe Number84
Mendeleev Number89
Pettifor Number84
Geochemical Class
Goldschmidt classificationchalcophile

other

Gas Basicity
polarizability
40 ± 1 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
354 a₀
allotrope
Neutron cross section
2,2
Neutron Mass Absorption
0,0011
numër kuantik3P0
space group225 (Fm_3m)

Isotopes of Germanium

Stable Isotopes4
Unstable Isotopes29
Natural Isotopes5
Isotopic Composition7436.52%7436.52%7227.45%7227.45%7020.52%7020.52%737.76%737.76%767.75%767.75%

58Ge

Numri i masës58
numri i neutroneve26
relative atomic mass
57,991863 ± 0,000537 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
Spini0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes
parity+

decay modeintensitet
2p (2-proton emission)

59Ge

Numri i masës59
numri i neutroneve27
relative atomic mass
58,982426 ± 0,000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
13,3 ± 1,7 ms
Spini7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes2015
parity-

decay modeintensitet
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)93%
2p (2-proton emission)0.2%

60Ge

Numri i masës60
numri i neutroneve28
relative atomic mass
59,970445 ± 0,000322 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
21 ± 6 ms
Spini0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes2005
parity+

decay modeintensitet
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)100%
2p (2-proton emission)14%

61Ge

Numri i masës61
numri i neutroneve29
relative atomic mass
60,963725 ± 0,000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
40,7 ± 0,4 ms
Spini3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1987
parity-

decay modeintensitet
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)87%

62Ge

Numri i masës62
numri i neutroneve30
relative atomic mass
61,954761 ± 0,00015 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
82,5 ± 1,4 ms
Spini0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1991
parity+

decay modeintensitet
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

63Ge

Numri i masës63
numri i neutroneve31
relative atomic mass
62,949628 ± 0,00004 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
153,6 ± 1,1 ms
Spini3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1991
parity-

decay modeintensitet
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

64Ge

Numri i masës64
numri i neutroneve32
relative atomic mass
63,941689912 ± 0,000004 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
63,7 ± 2,5 s
Spini0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1972
parity+

decay modeintensitet
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

65Ge

Numri i masës65
numri i neutroneve33
relative atomic mass
64,939368136 ± 0,000002323 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
30,9 ± 0,5 s
Spini3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1972
parity-

decay modeintensitet
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)0.011%

66Ge

Numri i masës66
numri i neutroneve34
relative atomic mass
65,933862124 ± 0,000002577 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
2,26 ± 0,05 h
Spini0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1950
parity+

decay modeintensitet
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

67Ge

Numri i masës67
numri i neutroneve35
relative atomic mass
66,932716999 ± 0,000004636 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
18,9 ± 0,3 m
Spini1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1950
parity-

decay modeintensitet
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

68Ge

Numri i masës68
numri i neutroneve36
relative atomic mass
67,928095305 ± 0,000002014 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
271,05 ± 0,08 d
Spini0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1948
parity+

decay modeintensitet
ϵ (electron capture)100%

69Ge

Numri i masës69
numri i neutroneve37
relative atomic mass
68,927964467 ± 0,000001414 Da
g-factor
0,294 ± 0,0028
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
39,05 ± 0,1 h
Spini5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0,114 ± 0,007
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1938
parity-

decay modeintensitet
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

70Ge

Numri i masës70
numri i neutroneve38
relative atomic mass
69,924248542 ± 0,00000088 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
20,52 ± 0,19
Radioaktivitetstable isotope
half-lifeNot Radioactive ☢️
Spini0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1923
parity+

71Ge

Numri i masës71
numri i neutroneve39
relative atomic mass
70,92495212 ± 0,000000874 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
11,43 ± 0,03 d
Spini1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1941
parity-

decay modeintensitet
ϵ (electron capture)100%

72Ge

Numri i masës72
numri i neutroneve40
relative atomic mass
71,922075824 ± 0,000000081 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
27,45 ± 0,15
Radioaktivitetstable isotope
half-lifeNot Radioactive ☢️
Spini0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1923
parity+

73Ge

Numri i masës73
numri i neutroneve41
relative atomic mass
72,923458954 ± 0,000000061 Da
g-factor
-0,19516444444444 ± 0,000011111111111111
natural abundance
7,76 ± 0,08
Radioaktivitetstable isotope
half-lifeNot Radioactive ☢️
Spini9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
-0,196 ± 0,001
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1933
parity+

74Ge

Numri i masës74
numri i neutroneve42
relative atomic mass
73,92117776 ± 0,000000013 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
36,52 ± 0,12
Radioaktivitetstable isotope
half-lifeNot Radioactive ☢️
Spini0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1923
parity+

75Ge

Numri i masës75
numri i neutroneve43
relative atomic mass
74,92285837 ± 0,000000055 Da
g-factor
1,018 ± 0,01
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
82,78 ± 0,04 m
Spini1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1939
parity-

decay modeintensitet
β (β decay)100%

76Ge

Numri i masës76
numri i neutroneve44
relative atomic mass
75,921402725 ± 0,000000019 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
7,75 ± 0,12
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
1,88 ± 0,08 Zy
Spini0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1933
parity+

decay modeintensitet
(double β decay)100%

77Ge

Numri i masës77
numri i neutroneve45
relative atomic mass
76,923549843 ± 0,000000056 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
11,211 ± 0,003 h
Spini7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1939
parity+

decay modeintensitet
β (β decay)100%

78Ge

Numri i masës78
numri i neutroneve46
relative atomic mass
77,922852911 ± 0,000003795 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
88 ± 1 m
Spini0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1953
parity+

decay modeintensitet
β (β decay)100%

79Ge

Numri i masës79
numri i neutroneve47
relative atomic mass
78,925359506 ± 0,000039893 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
18,98 ± 0,03 s
Spini1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1970
parity

decay modeintensitet
β (β decay)100%

80Ge

Numri i masës80
numri i neutroneve48
relative atomic mass
79,925350773 ± 0,000002205 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
29,5 ± 0,4 s
Spini0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1972
parity+

decay modeintensitet
β (β decay)100%

81Ge

Numri i masës81
numri i neutroneve49
relative atomic mass
80,928832941 ± 0,000002205 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
9 ± 2 s
Spini9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1972
parity+

decay modeintensitet
β (β decay)100%

82Ge

Numri i masës82
numri i neutroneve50
relative atomic mass
81,929774031 ± 0,000002405 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
4,31 ± 0,19 s
Spini0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1972
parity+

decay modeintensitet
β (β decay)100%

83Ge

Numri i masës83
numri i neutroneve51
relative atomic mass
82,9345391 ± 0,000002604 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
1,85 ± 0,06 s
Spini5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1972
parity+

decay modeintensitet
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

84Ge

Numri i masës84
numri i neutroneve52
relative atomic mass
83,93757509 ± 0,000003403 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
951 ± 9 ms
Spini0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1972
parity+

decay modeintensitet
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)10.6%

85Ge

Numri i masës85
numri i neutroneve53
relative atomic mass
84,942969658 ± 0,000004003 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
495 ± 5 ms
Spini3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1991
parity+

decay modeintensitet
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)17.2%
2n (2-neutron emission)

86Ge

Numri i masës86
numri i neutroneve54
relative atomic mass
85,946967 ± 0,00047 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
221,6 ± 11 ms
Spini0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1994
parity+

decay modeintensitet
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)45%

87Ge

Numri i masës87
numri i neutroneve55
relative atomic mass
86,953204 ± 0,000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
103 ± 4 ms
Spini5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1997
parity+

decay modeintensitet
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

88Ge

Numri i masës88
numri i neutroneve56
relative atomic mass
87,957574 ± 0,000429 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
61 ± 6 ms
Spini0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1997
parity+

decay modeintensitet
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

89Ge

Numri i masës89
numri i neutroneve57
relative atomic mass
88,96453 ± 0,000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
Spini3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1997
parity+

decay modeintensitet
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

90Ge

Numri i masës90
numri i neutroneve58
relative atomic mass
89,969436 ± 0,000537 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
Spini0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes2010
parity+

decay modeintensitet
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)
Germanium element

historia

zbuluesClemens Winkler
vendndodhja e zbulimitGermany
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1886
EtimologjiaLatin: Germania (Germany).
pronunciationjer-MAY-ni-em (anglisht)

burim

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
1,5 mg/kg
natural abundance (Oqeani)
0,00005 mg/L
natural abundance (Trupi i njeriut)
natural abundance (meteoroid)
0,0021 %
natural abundance (Diell)
0,00002 %
Abundance in Universe
0,00002 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s0.7063
2p3.9178
2s8.6352
3d15.7487
3p14.9864
3s14.2103
4p25.2196
4s23.9564