Lawrencium

Lawrencium (Lr)

Appearance unknown, however it is most likely silvery-white or grey and metallic. Lawrencium is a synthetic rare-earth metal. There are eight known radioisotopes, the most stable being Lr-262 with a half-life of 3.6 hours. Due to the short half-life of lawrencium, and its radioactivity, there are no known uses for it. Identified by Albert Ghiorso in 1961 at Berkeley. It was produced by bombarding californium with boron ions. The name is temporary IUPAC nomenclature, the origin of the name comes from Ernest O. Lawrence, the inventor of the cyclotron. If sufficient amounts of lawrencium were produced, it would pose a radiation hazard.
Atomic Number103
Atomic Weight262
Mass Number251
Group
Period7
Blockf
Protons103 p+
Neutrons148 n0
Electrons103 e-
Electron shell 103 Lawrencium.svg Animated Bohr Model of Lr (Lawrencium) Enhanced Bohr Model of Lr (Lawrencium) Bohr Model: Lr (Lawrencium) Orbital Diagram of Lr (Lawrencium)

Properties

Atomic Radius
Molar Volume
Covalent Radius
161 pm
Metallic Radius
Ionic Radius
107.4 pm
Crystal Radius
121.4 pm
Van der Waals Radius
246 pm
Density
15.6 g/cm³
Energy
Proton Affinity
Electron Affinity
Ionization Energy
Heat of Vaporization
Heat of Fusion
Heat of Formation
Electrons
Electron Shells2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 8, 3
Valence Electrons3
Electron Configuration[Rn] 5f14 7s2 7p1
Oxidation States3
Electronegativity
Electrophilicity
Phases
PhaseSolid
Gas Phase
Boiling Point
Melting Point
1,900.15 K
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
Triple Point
Visual
Color
Colorless
Appearance
Refractive Index
Thermodynamic Properties
Thermal Conductivity
Thermal Expansion
Molar Heat Capacity
Specific Heat Capacity
Heat Capacity Ratio (Adiabatic Index)
Electrical Properties
Type
Electrical Conductivity
Electrical Resistivity
Superconducting Point
Magnetism
Type
Magnetic Susceptibility (Mass)
Magnetic Susceptibility (Molar)
Magnetic Susceptibility (Volume)
Magnetic Ordering
Curie Point
Neel Point
Structure
Crystal Structure ()
Lattice Constant
Lattice Angles
Mechanical Properties
Hardness
Bulk Modulus
Shear Modulus
Young Modulus
Poisson Ratio
Speed of Sound
Classification
CategoryActinides, Transition metals
CAS Group
IUPAC Group
Glawe Number47
Mendeleev Number42
Pettifor Number34
Geochemical Class
Goldschmidt Classsynthetic
Other
Gas Basicity
Dipole Polarizability
320 ± 20 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
Allotropes
Neutron Cross Section
Neutron Mass Absorption
Quantum Numbers2P1/2
Space Group ()

Isotopes of Lawrencium

Stable Isotopes0
Unstable Isotopes16
Radioactive Isotopes16

251Lr

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
251.094289 ± 0.000215 Da
Mass Number251
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year
Parity

251Lr Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%
α (α emission)%

252Lr

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
252.095048 ± 0.000198 Da
Mass Number252
G-Factor
Half Life
369 ± 75 ms
Spin7
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2001
Parity-

252Lr Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)98%
SF (spontaneous fission)2%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%

253Lr

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
253.09503385 ± 0.000176634 Da
Mass Number253
G-Factor
Half Life
632 ± 46 ms
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1985
Parity-

253Lr Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)90%
SF (spontaneous fission)1%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%

254Lr

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
254.096238813 ± 0.000098026 Da
Mass Number254
G-Factor
Half Life
12 ± 0.9 s
Spin4
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1981
Parity+

254Lr Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)71.7%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)28.3%
SF (spontaneous fission)0.1%

255Lr

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
255.096562399 ± 0.000019 Da
Mass Number255
G-Factor
Half Life
31.1 ± 1.1 s
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1971
Parity-

255Lr Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)99.7%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)0.3%
SF (spontaneous fission)%

256Lr

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
256.098494024 ± 0.000089 Da
Mass Number256
G-Factor
0
Half Life
27.9 ± 1 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1965
Parity-

256Lr Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)85%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)15%
SF (spontaneous fission)0.03%

257Lr

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
257.09948 ± 0.000047 Da
Mass Number257
G-Factor
Half Life
6 ± 0.4 s
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1971
Parity-

257Lr Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%
SF (spontaneous fission)%

258Lr

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
258.101753 ± 0.000109 Da
Mass Number258
G-Factor
Half Life
3.92 ± 0.33 s
Spin
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1971
Parity

258Lr Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)97.4%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)2.6%

259Lr

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
259.1029 ± 0.000076 Da
Mass Number259
G-Factor
Half Life
6.2 ± 0.3 s
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1971
Parity-

259Lr Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)78%
SF (spontaneous fission)22%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%

260Lr

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
260.105504 ± 0.000134 Da
Mass Number260
G-Factor
Half Life
3 ± 0.5 m
Spin
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1971
Parity

260Lr Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)80%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)20%

261Lr

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
261.106879 ± 0.000215 Da
Mass Number261
G-Factor
Half Life
39 ± 12 m
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1987
Parity-

261Lr Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
SF (spontaneous fission)100%
α (α emission)%

262Lr

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
262.109615 ± 0.000215 Da
Mass Number262
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1987
Parity

262Lr Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%
SF (spontaneous fission)10%
α (α emission)%

263Lr

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
263.111293 ± 0.00024 Da
Mass Number263
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year
Parity-

263Lr Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)%

264Lr

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
264.114198 ± 0.000468 Da
Mass Number264
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year
Parity

264Lr Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)%
SF (spontaneous fission)%

265Lr

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
265.116193 ± 0.000587 Da
Mass Number265
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year
Parity-

265Lr Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)%
SF (spontaneous fission)%

266Lr

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
266.119874 ± 0.000579 Da
Mass Number266
G-Factor
Half Life
22 ± 14 h
Spin
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2014
Parity

266Lr Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
SF (spontaneous fission)100%

History

Lawrencium was discovered by Albert Ghiorso, Torbjørn Sikkeland, Almon Larsh and Robert M. Latimer in 1961 at the University of California, Berkeley. It was produced by the bombardment of californium with boron atoms. Lawrencium was the last member of the actinide series to be discovered. Named after Ernest O. Lawrence, inventor of the cyclotron

DiscoverersA.Ghiorso, T.Sikkeland, A.E.Larsh, R.M.Latimer
Discovery LocationUnited States
Discovery Year1961
Etymology (Name Origin)Named in honor of Ernest O. Lawrence, inventor of the cyclotron.
Pronunciationlor-ENS-i-em (English)
Lawrencium is harmful due to its radioactivity
Lawrencium is a trivalent ion in aqueous solution

Uses

Lawrencium is used for scientific research purposes only. It has no significant commercial applications.

Sources

Produced by bombarding californium with boron ions.

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
Abundance in Oceans
Abundance in Human Body
0 %
Abundance in Meteor
0 %
Abundance in Sun
0 %
Abundance in Universe
0 %

Nuclear Screening Constants