Magnesium

Magnesium (Mg)

Magnesium is the 12th element in the periodic table and has a symbol of Mg and atomic number of 12. It has an atomic weight of 24.305 and a mass number of 24. Magnesium has twelve protons and twelve neutrons in its nucleus, and twelve electrons in three shells. It is located in group two, period three and block s of the periodic table. Silvery metallic element belonging to group 2 of the periodic table (alkaline-earth metals). It is essential for living organisms, and is used in a number of light alloys. Chemically very reactive, it forms a protective oxide coating when exposed to air and burns with an intense white flame. It also reacts with sulphur, nitrogen and the halogens. First isolated by Bussy in 1828.
Atomic Number12
Atomic Weight24.305
Mass Number24
Group2
Period3
Blocks
Protons12 p+
Neutrons12 n0
Electrons12 e-
Animated Bohr Model of Mg (Magnesium)

Physical Properties

Atomic Radius
150 pm
Molar Volume
Covalent Radius
139 pm
Metallic Radius
136 pm
Ionic Radius
57 pm
Crystal Radius
71 pm
Van der Waals Radius
173 pm
Density
1.74 g/cm³
Atomic Radii of the Elements: Magnesium0153045607590105120135150165180pmAtomic RadiusCovalent RadiusMetallic RadiusVan der Waals Radius

Chemical Properties

Energy
Proton Affinity
819.6 kJ/mol
Electron Affinity
Ionization Energy
7.646235 eV/particle
Ionization Energies of Mg (Magnesium)
Heat of Vaporization
131.8 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
9.2 kJ/mol
Heat of Formation
147.1 kJ/mol
Electrons
Electron Shells2, 8, 2
Bohr Model: Mg (Magnesium)
Valence Electrons2
Lewis Structure: Mg (Magnesium)
Electron Configuration[Ne] 3s2
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2
Enhanced Bohr Model of Mg (Magnesium)
Orbital Diagram of Mg (Magnesium)
Oxidation States0, 1, 2
Electronegativity
1.31
Electrophilicity Index
States of Matter
PhaseSolid
Gas Phase
Boiling Point
1,363.15 K
Melting Point
923.15 K
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
Triple Point
Visual

Magnesium is a Silver. Mg has a CPK of #228b22, Jmol of #8aff00, and MOLCAS GV of #8aff00. The Appearance of Element 12 is shiny grey solid.

Color
Silver
Appearanceshiny grey solid
Refractive Index
Thermodynamic Properties
Thermal Conductivity
Thermal Expansion
0.0000248 1/K
Molar Heat Capacity
24.869 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
1.023 J/(g⋅K)
Heat Capacity Ratio (Adiabatic Index)
Electrical Properties
TypeConductor
Electrical Conductivity
23 MS/m
Electrical Resistivity
0.00000004399999999999 m Ω
Superconducting Point
Magnetism
Typeparamagnetic
Magnetic Susceptibility (Mass)
0.0000000069 m³/Kg
Magnetic Susceptibility (Molar)
0.000000000168 m³/mol
Magnetic Susceptibility (Volume)
0.000012
Magnetic Ordering
Curie Point
Neel Point
Structure

The Crystal Structure of Magnesium is HEX. The lattice constant of Mg is 3.21 Å. The lattice angles of Element 12 are π/2, π/2, 2 π/3.

Crystal StructureSimple Hexagonal (HEX)
Lattice Constant
3.21 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, 2 π/3
Mechanical Properties

Magnesium has a Brinell of 260 MPa, and Mohs hardness of 2.5 MPa. The Bulk Modulus of Mg is 45 GPa. The Shear Modulus of Element 12 is 17 GPa. The Young Modulus of Magnesium (Mg) is 45 GPa. The Poisson Ratio of Magnesium is 0.29. The Speed of Sound of Mg is 4602 m/s.

Hardness
2.5 MPa
Bulk Modulus
45 GPa
Shear Modulus
17 GPa
Young's Modulus
45 GPa
Poisson Ratio
0.29
Speed of Sound
4,602 m/s
Classification

The CAS Group of Magnesium is IIA. The IUPAC Group of Mg is IIA. The Glawe Number of Element 12 is 73. The Mendeleev Number of Magnesium (Mg) is 76. The Pettifor Number of Magnesium is 73. The Geochemical Class of Mg is major. The Goldschmidt Class of Element 12 is litophile.

CategoryAlkaline earth metals, Alkaline earth metals
CAS GroupIIA
IUPAC GroupIIA
Glawe Number73
Mendeleev Number76
Pettifor Number73
Geochemical Classmajor
Goldschmidt Classlitophile

Other

The Gas Basicity of Magnesium is 797.3 kJ/mol. The Dipole Polarizability of Mg is 71.2 plus or minus 0.4 a₀. Element 12 has a C6 Dispersion Coefficient (CD) of 626 a₀, and C6 Dispersion Coefficient (GB) of 629 a₀. The Allotropes of Magnesium (Mg) is . The Neutron Cross Section of Magnesium is 0.063. The Neutron Mass Absorption of Mg is 0.0001. The Quantum Numbers of Element 12 is 1S0. The Space Group of Magnesium (Mg) is 194 (P63/mmc).

Gas Basicity
797.3 kJ/mol
Dipole Polarizability
71.2 ± 0.4 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
626 a₀
Allotropes
Neutron Cross Section
0.063
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.0001
Quantum Numbers1S0
Space Group194 (P63/mmc)

Isotopes of Magnesium

Stable Isotopes3
Unstable Isotopes20
Natural Isotopes3
Isotopic Composition2478.96%2478.96%2611.02%2611.02%2510.01%2510.01%

19Mg

Mass Number19
Neutron Number7
Relative Atomic Mass
19.03417992 ± 0.000064413 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
5 ± 3 ps
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2007
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
2p (2-proton emission)100%

20Mg

Mass Number20
Neutron Number8
Relative Atomic Mass
20.018763075 ± 0.000002 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
90.4 ± 0.5 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1974
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)30.3%

21Mg

Mass Number21
Neutron Number9
Relative Atomic Mass
21.011705764 ± 0.00000081 Da
G-Factor
-0.3932 ± 0.0028
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
120 ± 0.4 ms
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1963
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)20.1%
β+α (β+-delayed α emission)0.116%
B+pA0.016%

22Mg

Mass Number22
Neutron Number10
Relative Atomic Mass
21.999570597 ± 0.00000017 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
3.8745 ± 0.0007 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1961
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

23Mg

Mass Number23
Neutron Number11
Relative Atomic Mass
22.994123768 ± 0.000000034 Da
G-Factor
-0.35753333333333 ± 0.0002
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
11.3039 ± 0.0032 s
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.114 ± 0.003
Discovery Year1939
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

24Mg

Mass Number24
Neutron Number12
Relative Atomic Mass
23.985041689 ± 0.000000013 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
78.965 ± 0.049
RadioactivityStable
Half LifeNot Radioactive ☢️
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1920
Parity+

25Mg

Mass Number25
Neutron Number13
Relative Atomic Mass
24.985836966 ± 0.00000005 Da
G-Factor
-0.342132 ± 0.000012
Abundance
10.011 ± 0.013
RadioactivityStable
Half LifeNot Radioactive ☢️
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.199 ± 0.002
Discovery Year1920
Parity+

26Mg

Mass Number26
Neutron Number14
Relative Atomic Mass
25.982592972 ± 0.000000031 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
11.025 ± 0.038
RadioactivityStable
Half LifeNot Radioactive ☢️
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1920
Parity+

27Mg

Mass Number27
Neutron Number15
Relative Atomic Mass
26.984340647 ± 0.00000005 Da
G-Factor
-0.8212 ± 0.003
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
9.435 ± 0.027 m
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1934
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

28Mg

Mass Number28
Neutron Number16
Relative Atomic Mass
27.983875426 ± 0.00000028 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
20.915 ± 0.009 h
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1953
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

29Mg

Mass Number29
Neutron Number17
Relative Atomic Mass
28.988607163 ± 0.000000369 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
1.3 ± 0.12 s
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
-0.16 ± 0.04
Discovery Year1971
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

30Mg

Mass Number30
Neutron Number18
Relative Atomic Mass
29.990465454 ± 0.00000139 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
317 ± 4 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1971
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)0.06%

31Mg

Mass Number31
Neutron Number19
Relative Atomic Mass
30.996648232 ± 0.0000033 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
270 ± 2 ms
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1977
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)6.2%

32Mg

Mass Number32
Neutron Number20
Relative Atomic Mass
31.999110138 ± 0.0000035 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
80.4 ± 0.4 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1977
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)5.5%

33Mg

Mass Number33
Neutron Number21
Relative Atomic Mass
33.005327862 ± 0.000002859 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
92 ± 1.2 ms
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.13 ± 0.09
Discovery Year1979
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)14%
2n (2-neutron emission)

34Mg

Mass Number34
Neutron Number22
Relative Atomic Mass
34.008935455 ± 0.0000074 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
44.9 ± 0.4 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1979
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)21%
2n (2-neutron emission)0.1%

35Mg

Mass Number35
Neutron Number23
Relative Atomic Mass
35.01679 ± 0.0002895 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
11.3 ± 0.6 ms
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1989
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)52%
2n (2-neutron emission)

36Mg

Mass Number36
Neutron Number24
Relative Atomic Mass
36.021879 ± 0.000741 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
3.9 ± 1.3 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1989
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)48%
2n (2-neutron emission)

37Mg

Mass Number37
Neutron Number25
Relative Atomic Mass
37.030286265 ± 0.00075035 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
8 ± 4 ms
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1996
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

38Mg

Mass Number38
Neutron Number26
Relative Atomic Mass
38.03658 ± 0.00054 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1997
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

39Mg

Mass Number39
Neutron Number27
Relative Atomic Mass
39.045921 ± 0.000551 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
n (neutron emission)
β (β decay)

40Mg

Mass Number40
Neutron Number28
Relative Atomic Mass
40.053194 ± 0.000537 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2007
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

41Mg

Mass Number41
Neutron Number29
Relative Atomic Mass
41.062373 ± 0.000537 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
Magnesium crystals

History

Scottish chemist Joseph Black recognized magnesium as an element in 1755. Magnesium was first isolated by Sir Humphry Davy in 1808, in London. He used electrolysis on a mixture of magnesia and mercuric oxide. Antoine Bussy prepared it in coherent form in 1831. From Magnesia, district in Thessaly

DiscoverersSir Humphrey Davy
Discovery LocationEngland
Discovery Year1808
Etymology (Name Origin)From Magnesia ancient city in district of Thessaly, Greece.
Pronunciationmag-NEE-zih-em (English)
Because serious fires can occur, great care should be taken in handling magnesium metal
When it burns in air, magnesium produces a brilliant white light

Uses

Magnesium is widely used in the manufacturing of mobile phones, laptop computers, cameras, and other electronic components. The brilliant light it produces when ignited is made use of in photography, flares, pyrotechnics and incendiary bombs. Magnesium compounds such as the hydroxide (milk of magnesia), sulfate (Epsom salts), chloride and citrate are used for medicinal purposes. Used in alloys to make airplanes, missiles and other uses for light metals. Has structural properties similar to aluminium. But since it is flammable at temperatures of burning gasoline, its uses are limited.

Sources

Usually obtained by electrolysis of melted magnesium chloride (MgCl2) found in sea water. Each cubic mile of seawater contains about 12 billion pounds of magnesium.

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
23,300 mg/kg
Natural Abundance (Oceans)
1,290 mg/L
Natural Abundance (Human Body)
0.027 %
Natural Abundance (Meteor)
12 %
Natural Abundance (Sun)
0.07 %
Abundance in Universe
0.06 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s0.3911
2p4.1742
2s4.608
3s8.6925

Also Known As

  • Mg
  • element 12
  • 12Mg

Translations

  • Italianmagnesio
  • Norwegian Bokmålmagnesium
  • Dutchmagnesium
  • GermanMagnesium
  • Frenchmagnésium
  • Chinese (Traditional)
  • Spanishmagnesio
  • Afrikaansmagnesium
  • Amharicማግኒዥየም
  • AragoneseMagnesio
  • Arabicمغنسيوم
  • AsturianMagnesiu
  • AzerbaijaniMaqnezium
  • Belarusianмагній
  • Bulgarianмагнезий
  • Banglaম্যাগনেসিয়াম
  • BretonMagneziom
  • Bosnianmagnezij
  • Catalanmagnesi
  • CebuanoMagnesyo
  • Central Kurdishمەگنیسیۆم
  • CorsicanMagnesiu
  • Czechhořčík
  • ChuvashМагни
  • WelshMagnesiwm
  • Danishmagnesium
  • Divehiމެގްނީޒިއަމް
  • Greekμαγνήσιο
  • Esperantomagnezio
  • Estonianmagneesium
  • Basquemagnesio
  • Persianمنیزیم
  • Finnishmagnesium
  • Northern FrisianMagnesium
  • FriulianMagnesi
  • Western FrisianMagnesium
  • IrishMaignéisiam
  • Galicianmagnesio
  • ManxMagnaishum
  • Hakka ChineseMagnesium
  • HawaiianMakanekiuma
  • Hebrewמגנזיום
  • Hindiमैग्नेशियम तत्त्व
  • Fiji HindiMagnesium
  • Croatianmagnezij
  • Haitian CreoleManyezyòm
  • Hungarianmagnézium
  • Armenianմագնեզիում
  • Interlinguamagnesium
  • Indonesianmagnesium
  • Idomagnezo
  • Icelandicmagnesín
  • Japaneseマグネシウム
  • Lojbanlidgusyjinme
  • JavaneseMagnesium
  • Georgianმაგნიუმი
  • KazakhМагний
  • Kannadaಮ್ಯಗ್ನೀಶಿಯಮ್
  • Korean마그네슘
  • KurdishMagnezyûm
  • KomiМагний
  • Latinmagnesium
  • LuxembourgishMagnesium
  • LigurianMagnesio
  • LingalaManezu
  • Lithuanianmagnis
  • Latvianmagnijs
  • MokshaМагнезь
  • Māorikonupora
  • Macedonianмагнезиум
  • Malayalamമഗ്നീഷ്യം
  • Marathiमॅग्नेशियम
  • Western MariМагний
  • Malaymagnesium
  • Burmeseမဂ္ဂနီစီယမ်
  • Low GermanMagnesium
  • Nepaliम्याग्नेसियम
  • Newariम्याग्नेजियम
  • Norwegian Nynorskmagnesium
  • NavajoBéésh Łikoní
  • OccitanMagnèsi
  • Punjabiਮੈਗਨੇਸ਼ਿਅਮ
  • Polishmagnez
  • PiedmonteseMagnesi
  • Western Panjabiمیگنیشیم
  • Portuguesemagnésio
  • QuechuaQunta q'illay
  • Romanianmagneziu
  • Russianмагний
  • YakutМагнезиум
  • Sicilianmagnesiu
  • Serbo-CroatianMagnezij
  • Slovakhorčík
  • Slovenianmagnezij
  • AlbanianMagneziumi
  • Serbianмагнезијум
  • Saterland FrisianMagnesium
  • Swedishmagnesium
  • SwahiliMagnesi
  • Tamilமக்னீசியம்
  • Teluguమెగ్నీషియం
  • TajikМагний
  • Thaiแมกนีเซียม
  • TagalogMagnesyo
  • Turkishmagnezyum
  • TatarМагний
  • Uyghurماگنىي
  • Ukrainianмагній
  • UzbekMagniy
  • VepsMagnii
  • Vietnamesemagiê
  • WarayMagnesyo
  • KalmykМаңһанис
  • Yiddishמאגנעזיום
  • YorubaMagnésíọ̀mù
  • Chinese
  • English (Canada)Magnesium
  • English (United Kingdom)magnesium
  • German (Switzerland)Magnesium
  • Portuguese (Brazil)magnésio
  • Cantonese
  • Odiaମାଗ୍ନେସିଅମ
  • Gujaratiમેગ્નેશિયમ
  • Chinese (China)
  • Chinese (Hong Kong SAR China)
  • Mongolianмагни
  • KikuyuMagnesium
  • Min Nan ChineseMagnesium
  • SomaliMagniisiyaam
  • Belarusian (Taraskievica orthography)магн
  • Literary Chinese
  • AromanianMagneziu
  • LimburgishMagnesium
  • FaroeseMagnesium
  • KashubianMagnez
  • KyrgyzМагний
  • cdo
  • Sanskritम्याग्नेजियम
  • Scottish GaelicMagnesium
  • LombardMagnesio
  • Maltesemanjesju
  • Scotsmagnesium
  • Gan Chinese
  • Sinhalaමැග්නීසියම්
  • SundaneseMagnésium
  • Bhojpuriमैग्नीशियम
  • Tibetanདཀར་གཡའ།
  • oloMagnii
  • Paliम्याग्नेजियम
  • azbمنیزیوم
  • Lingua Franca Novamagnesio
  • Wu Chinese
  • kbpMañɩzɩyɔm
  • Khmerម៉ាញ៉េស្យូម
  • Chinese (Taiwan)
  • SardinianMagnèsiu
  • Chinese (Simplified)
  • Urduمیگنیشیم
  • Chinese (Malaysia)
  • Chinese (Singapore)
  • Chinese (Macao SAR China)
  • BashkirМагний
  • Moroccan Arabicماݣنيزيوم
  • Egyptian Arabicمغنسيوم
  • Pashtoمگنېزيوم
  • lldMagnejie
  • WalloonMagneziom
  • BikolMagnesyo
  • IngushЦӀокъболат
  • CornishMagnesiom
  • MinangkabauMagnesium
  • BalineseMagnésium
  • blkမဲဂ္ဂနီသီယမ်
  • Korean (North Korea)마그네시움
  • Sindhiميگنيشيئم
  • Malay (Arabic)مݢنيسيوم