Manganese

Manganese (Mn)

Grey brittle metallic transition element. Rather electropositive, combines with some non-metals when heated. Discovered in 1774 by Scheele.
Atomic Number25
Atomic Weight54.938044
Mass Number55
Group7
Period4
Blockd
Protons25 p+
Neutrons30 n0
Electrons25 e-
Manganese electrolytic and 1cm3 cube.jpg Animated Bohr Model of Mn (Manganese) Enhanced Bohr Model of Mn (Manganese) Bohr Model: Mn (Manganese) Orbital Diagram of Mn (Manganese)

Properties

Atomic Radius
140 pm
Molar Volume
Covalent Radius
119 pm
Metallic Radius
118 pm
Ionic Radius
66 pm
Crystal Radius
80 pm
Van der Waals Radius
205 pm
Density
7.3 g/cm³
Energy
Proton Affinity
797.3 kJ/mol
Electron Affinity
Ionization Energy
7.434018 eV/particle
Heat of Vaporization
221 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
13.4 kJ/mol
Heat of Formation
283.3 kJ/mol
Electrons
Electron Shells2, 8, 13, 2
Valence Electrons4
Electron Configuration[Ar] 3d5 4s2
Oxidation States-3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
Electronegativity
1.55
Electrophilicity
Phases
PhaseSolid
Gas Phase
Boiling Point
2,334.15 K
Melting Point
1,519.15 K
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
4,325.15 K
Triple Point
Visual
Color
Silver
Appearancesilvery metallic
Refractive Index
Thermodynamic Properties
Thermal Conductivity
Thermal Expansion
0.0000217 1/K
Molar Heat Capacity
26.32 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.479 J/(g⋅K)
Heat Capacity Ratio (Adiabatic Index)
Electrical Properties
TypeConductor
Electrical Conductivity
0.62 MS/m
Electrical Resistivity
0.0000016 m Ω
Superconducting Point
Magnetism
Typeparamagnetic
Magnetic Susceptibility (Mass)
0.000000121 m³/Kg
Magnetic Susceptibility (Molar)
0.0000000066475 m³/mol
Magnetic Susceptibility (Volume)
0.00090387
Magnetic Ordering
Curie Point
Neel Point
100 K
Structure
Crystal StructureBody Centered Cubic (CUB)
Lattice Constant
8.89 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, π/2
Mechanical Properties
Hardness
6 MPa
Bulk Modulus
120 GPa
Shear Modulus
Young Modulus
198 GPa
Poisson Ratio
Speed of Sound
5,150 m/s
Classification
CategoryTransition metals, Transition metals
CAS GroupVIIA
IUPAC GroupVIIB
Glawe Number72
Mendeleev Number55
Pettifor Number60
Geochemical Classfirst series transition metal
Goldschmidt Classsiderophile
Other
Gas Basicity
774.4 kJ/mol
Dipole Polarizability
68 ± 9 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
552 a₀
Allotropes
Neutron Cross Section
13.3
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.0083
Quantum Numbers6S5/2
Space Group217 (I_43m)

Isotopes of Manganese

Stable Isotopes1
Unstable Isotopes30
Radioactive Isotopes27

43Mn

Abundance
Relative Atomic Mass
43.018647 ± 0.000429 Da
Mass Number43
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year
Parity-

43Mn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
p (proton emission)%

44Mn

Abundance
Relative Atomic Mass
44.008009 ± 0.000322 Da
Mass Number44
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year
Parity-

44Mn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
p (proton emission)%

45Mn

Abundance
Relative Atomic Mass
44.994654 ± 0.000322 Da
Mass Number45
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year
Parity-

45Mn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
p (proton emission)%

46Mn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
45.986669 ± 0.000093 Da
Mass Number46
G-Factor
Half Life
36.2 ± 0.4 ms
Spin4
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1987
Parity+

46Mn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)57%
2p (2-proton emission)18%
β+α (β+-delayed α emission)%

47Mn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
46.975774 ± 0.000034 Da
Mass Number47
G-Factor
Half Life
88 ± 1.3 ms
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1987
Parity-

47Mn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)1.7%

48Mn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
47.96854876 ± 0.000007191 Da
Mass Number48
G-Factor
Half Life
158.1 ± 2.2 ms
Spin4
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1987
Parity+

48Mn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)0.28%
β+α (β+-delayed α emission)6%

49Mn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
48.95961335 ± 0.000002377 Da
Mass Number49
G-Factor
Half Life
382 ± 7 ms
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1970
Parity-

49Mn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

50Mn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
49.954238157 ± 0.000000123 Da
Mass Number50
G-Factor
0
Half Life
283.21 ± 0.07 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1952
Parity+

50Mn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

51Mn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
50.94820877 ± 0.000000326 Da
Mass Number51
G-Factor
1.43 ± 0.0016
Half Life
45.81 ± 0.21 m
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.41 ± 0.08
Discovery Year1938
Parity-

51Mn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

52Mn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
51.94555909 ± 0.000000138 Da
Mass Number52
G-Factor
0.51036666666667 ± 0.0002
Half Life
5.591 ± 0.003 d
Spin6
Quadrupole Moment
0.5 ± 0.07
Discovery Year1938
Parity+

52Mn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

53Mn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
52.941287497 ± 0.000000371 Da
Mass Number53
G-Factor
1.438 ± 0.0014285714285714
Half Life
3.7 ± 0.4 My
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.17 ± 0.03
Discovery Year1955
Parity-

53Mn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

54Mn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
53.940355772 ± 0.00000108 Da
Mass Number54
G-Factor
1.099 ± 0.001
Half Life
312.081 ± 0.032 d
Spin3
Quadrupole Moment
0.37 ± 0.03
Discovery Year1938
Parity+

54Mn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%
β (β decay)0.93%
e+ (positron emission)1.28%

55Mn

Abundance
100
Relative Atomic Mass
54.93804304 ± 0.000000279 Da
Mass Number55
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.33 ± 0.01
Discovery Year1923
Parity-

56Mn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
55.938902816 ± 0.000000314 Da
Mass Number56
G-Factor
1.08 ± 0.00066666666666667
Half Life
2.5789 ± 0.0001 h
Spin3
Quadrupole Moment
0.24 ± 0.08
Discovery Year1934
Parity+

56Mn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

57Mn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
56.938285944 ± 0.000001615 Da
Mass Number57
G-Factor
1.3924 ± 0.0008
Half Life
85.4 ± 1.8 s
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.37 ± 0.03
Discovery Year1954
Parity-

57Mn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

58Mn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
57.940066643 ± 0.0000029 Da
Mass Number58
G-Factor
2.623 ± 0.002
Half Life
3 ± 0.1 s
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
0.03 ± 0.08
Discovery Year1961
Parity+

58Mn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

59Mn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
58.940391111 ± 0.0000025 Da
Mass Number59
G-Factor
1.3976 ± 0.0012
Half Life
4.59 ± 0.05 s
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.34 ± 0.03
Discovery Year1976
Parity-

59Mn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

60Mn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
59.943136574 ± 0.0000025 Da
Mass Number60
G-Factor
2.488 ± 0.007
Half Life
280 ± 20 ms
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
0.1 ± 0.2
Discovery Year1978
Parity+

60Mn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

61Mn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
60.944452541 ± 0.0000025 Da
Mass Number61
G-Factor
1.4132 ± 0.0008
Half Life
709 ± 8 ms
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.36 ± 0.03
Discovery Year1980
Parity-

61Mn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%

62Mn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
61.947907384 ± 0.000007023 Da
Mass Number62
G-Factor
2.384 ± 0.007
Half Life
92 ± 13 ms
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
0.1 ± 0.2
Discovery Year1983
Parity+

62Mn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%

63Mn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
62.949664672 ± 0.000004 Da
Mass Number63
G-Factor
1.3756 ± 0.0012
Half Life
275 ± 4 ms
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.48 ± 0.04
Discovery Year1985
Parity-

63Mn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%

64Mn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
63.953849369 ± 0.0000038 Da
Mass Number64
G-Factor
2.085 ± 0.003
Half Life
88.8 ± 2.4 ms
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1985
Parity+

64Mn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)2.7%

65Mn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
64.956019749 ± 0.000004 Da
Mass Number65
G-Factor
Half Life
91.9 ± 0.7 ms
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1985
Parity-

65Mn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)7.9%

66Mn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
65.960546833 ± 0.000012 Da
Mass Number66
G-Factor
Half Life
63.8 ± 0.9 ms
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1992
Parity+

66Mn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)7.4%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

67Mn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
66.96395 ± 0.000215 Da
Mass Number67
G-Factor
Half Life
46.7 ± 2.3 ms
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1997
Parity-

67Mn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)10%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

68Mn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
67.968953 ± 0.000322 Da
Mass Number68
G-Factor
Half Life
33.7 ± 1.5 ms
Spin3
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1995
Parity

68Mn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)18%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

69Mn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
68.972775 ± 0.000429 Da
Mass Number69
G-Factor
Half Life
22.1 ± 1.6 ms
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1995
Parity-

69Mn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)40%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

70Mn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
69.978046 ± 0.000537 Da
Mass Number70
G-Factor
Half Life
19.9 ± 1.7 ms
Spin4
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2009
Parity

70Mn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

71Mn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
70.982158 ± 0.000537 Da
Mass Number71
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2010
Parity-

71Mn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

72Mn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
71.988009 ± 0.000644 Da
Mass Number72
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2013
Parity

72Mn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

73Mn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
72.992807 ± 0.000644 Da
Mass Number73
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2017
Parity-

73Mn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%

History

By the mid-18th century, Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele had used pyrolusite to produce chlorine. Scheele and others were aware that pyrolusite contained a new element, but they were not able to isolate it. Johan Gottlieb Gahn was the first to isolate an impure sample of manganese metal in 1774, by reducing the dioxide with carbon. From the Latin word magnes, magnet, from magnetic properties of pyrolusite

DiscoverersJohann Gahn
Discovery LocationSweden
Discovery Year1774
Etymology (Name Origin)Latin: magnes (magnet); Italian: manganese.
PronunciationMAN-ge-nees (English)
Excess manganese, particularly inhalation of the powder, is toxic
Neanderthals may have used black manganese di oxide as a cosmetic 50,000 years ago

Uses

For over 2000 years, manganese dioxide has been used to make colorless glass. Manganese dioxide is used as the cathode material in zinc-carbon and alkaline batteries. Manganese also functions in the oxygen-evolving complex of photosynthetic plants. The dioxide is also used in the preparation of oxygen and chlorine and in drying black paints. Used in steel, batteries and ceramics. The steel in railroad tracks can contain as much as 1.2% manganese. It is crucial to the effectiveness of vitamin B1.

Sources

Most abundant ores are pyrolusite (MnO2), psilomelane [(Ba,H2O)2Mn5O10] and rhodochrosite (MnCO3). Pure metal produced by mixing MnO2 with powered Al and ignited in a furnace.

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
950 mg/kg
Abundance in Oceans
0.0002 mg/L
Abundance in Human Body
0.00002 %
Abundance in Meteor
0.27 %
Abundance in Sun
0.001 %
Abundance in Universe
0.0008 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s0.6043
2p3.916
2s7.2062
3d14.4718
3p12.8908
3s11.9821
4s19.7168