Nickel

Nickel (Ni)

Malleable ductile silvery metallic transition element. Discovered by A.F. Cronstedt in 1751.
Atomic Number28
Atomic Weight58.6934
Mass Number58
Group10
Period4
Blockd
Protons28 p+
Neutrons30 n0
Electrons28 e-
Electrolytic nickel.jpg Animated Bohr Model of Ni (Nickel) Enhanced Bohr Model of Ni (Nickel) Bohr Model: Ni (Nickel) Orbital Diagram of Ni (Nickel)

Properties

Atomic Radius
135 pm
Molar Volume
Covalent Radius
110 pm
Metallic Radius
115 pm
Ionic Radius
55 pm
Crystal Radius
69 pm
Van der Waals Radius
197 pm
Density
8.9 g/cm³
Energy
Proton Affinity
737 kJ/mol
Electron Affinity
Ionization Energy
7.639877 eV/particle
Heat of Vaporization
378.6 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
17.61 kJ/mol
Heat of Formation
430.1 kJ/mol
Electrons
Electron Shells2, 8, 16, 2
Valence Electrons2
Electron Configuration[Ar] 3d8 4s2
Oxidation States-2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4
Electronegativity
1.91
Electrophilicity
1.4915353151966217 eV/particle
Phases
PhaseSolid
Gas Phase
Boiling Point
3,186.15 K
Melting Point
1,728.15 K
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
Triple Point
Visual
Color
Gray
Appearancelustrous, metallic, and silver with a gold tinge
Refractive Index
Thermodynamic Properties
Thermal Conductivity
90.9 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion
0.0000134 1/K
Molar Heat Capacity
26.07 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.444 J/(g⋅K)
Heat Capacity Ratio (Adiabatic Index)
Electrical Properties
TypeConductor
Electrical Conductivity
14 MS/m
Electrical Resistivity
0.00000007000000000002 m Ω
Superconducting Point
Magnetism
Typeferromagnetic
Magnetic Susceptibility (Mass)
Magnetic Susceptibility (Molar)
Magnetic Susceptibility (Volume)
Magnetic Ordering
Curie Point
631 K
Neel Point
Structure
Crystal StructureFace Centered Cubic (FCC)
Lattice Constant
3.52 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, π/2
Mechanical Properties
Hardness
4 MPa
Bulk Modulus
180 GPa
Shear Modulus
76 GPa
Young Modulus
200 GPa
Poisson Ratio
0.31
Speed of Sound
4,970 m/s
Classification
CategoryTransition metals, Transition metals
CAS GroupVIIIA
IUPAC GroupVIII
Glawe Number69
Mendeleev Number67
Pettifor Number67
Geochemical Classfirst series transition metal
Goldschmidt Classsiderophile
Other
Gas Basicity
714.1 kJ/mol
Dipole Polarizability
49 ± 3 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
373 a₀
Allotropes
Neutron Cross Section
4.5
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.0026
Quantum Numbers3F4
Space Group225 (Fm_3m)

Isotopes of Nickel

Stable Isotopes5
Unstable Isotopes30
Radioactive Isotopes30

48Ni

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
48.019515 ± 0.000455 Da
Mass Number48
G-Factor
0
Half Life
2.8 ± 0.8 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2000
Parity+

48Ni Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
2p (2-proton emission)70%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)30%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)%

49Ni

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
49.009157 ± 0.000644 Da
Mass Number49
G-Factor
Half Life
7.5 ± 1 ms
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1996
Parity-

49Ni Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)83.4%

50Ni

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
49.996286 ± 0.000537 Da
Mass Number50
G-Factor
0
Half Life
18.5 ± 1.2 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1994
Parity+

50Ni Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)73%
2p (2-proton emission)14%

51Ni

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
50.987493 ± 0.000537 Da
Mass Number51
G-Factor
Half Life
23.8 ± 0.2 ms
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1987
Parity-

51Ni Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)87.2%
2p (2-proton emission)0.5%

52Ni

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
51.975781 ± 0.000089 Da
Mass Number52
G-Factor
0
Half Life
41.8 ± 1 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1987
Parity+

52Ni Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)31.1%

53Ni

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
52.96819 ± 0.000027 Da
Mass Number53
G-Factor
Half Life
55.2 ± 0.7 ms
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1976
Parity-

53Ni Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)22.7%

54Ni

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
53.957833 ± 0.000005 Da
Mass Number54
G-Factor
0
Half Life
114.1 ± 0.3 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1977
Parity+

54Ni Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)%

55Ni

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
54.951329846 ± 0.000000757 Da
Mass Number55
G-Factor
0.28 ± 0.0085714285714286
Half Life
203.9 ± 1.3 ms
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1972
Parity-

55Ni Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

56Ni

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
55.942127761 ± 0.000000428 Da
Mass Number56
G-Factor
0
Half Life
6.075 ± 0.01 d
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1952
Parity+

56Ni Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

57Ni

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
56.939791394 ± 0.000000608 Da
Mass Number57
G-Factor
-0.53166666666667 ± 0.00093333333333333
Half Life
35.6 ± 0.06 h
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1938
Parity-

57Ni Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

58Ni

Abundance
68.0769 ± 0.019
Relative Atomic Mass
57.93534165 ± 0.000000374 Da
Mass Number58
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1921
Parity+

58Ni Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
+ (double β+ decay)%

59Ni

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
58.934345442 ± 0.000000376 Da
Mass Number59
G-Factor
Half Life
81 ± 5 ky
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1951
Parity-

59Ni Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

60Ni

Abundance
26.2231 ± 0.015
Relative Atomic Mass
59.930785129 ± 0.000000378 Da
Mass Number60
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1921
Parity+

61Ni

Abundance
1.1399 ± 0.0013
Relative Atomic Mass
60.931054819 ± 0.000000381 Da
Mass Number61
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.162 ± 0.015
Discovery Year1934
Parity-

62Ni

Abundance
3.6345 ± 0.004
Relative Atomic Mass
61.928344753 ± 0.000000455 Da
Mass Number62
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1934
Parity+

63Ni

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
62.929669021 ± 0.000000457 Da
Mass Number63
G-Factor
0.992 ± 0.01
Half Life
101.2 ± 1.5 y
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1951
Parity-

63Ni Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

64Ni

Abundance
0.9256 ± 0.0019
Relative Atomic Mass
63.927966228 ± 0.000000497 Da
Mass Number64
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1935
Parity+

65Ni

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
64.930084585 ± 0.000000518 Da
Mass Number65
G-Factor
0.276 ± 0.024
Half Life
2.5175 ± 0.0005 h
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1946
Parity-

65Ni Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

66Ni

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
65.929139333 ± 0.0000015 Da
Mass Number66
G-Factor
0
Half Life
54.6 ± 0.3 h
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1948
Parity+

66Ni Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

67Ni

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
66.931569413 ± 0.0000031 Da
Mass Number67
G-Factor
1.202 ± 0.01
Half Life
21 ± 1 s
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1978
Parity-

67Ni Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

68Ni

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
67.931868787 ± 0.0000032 Da
Mass Number68
G-Factor
0
Half Life
29 ± 2 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1977
Parity+

68Ni Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

69Ni

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
68.935610267 ± 0.000004 Da
Mass Number69
G-Factor
Half Life
11.4 ± 0.3 s
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1984
Parity+

69Ni Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

70Ni

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
69.9364313 ± 0.000002301 Da
Mass Number70
G-Factor
0
Half Life
6 ± 0.3 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1987
Parity+

70Ni Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

71Ni

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
70.940518962 ± 0.000002401 Da
Mass Number71
G-Factor
Half Life
2.56 ± 0.03 s
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1987
Parity+

71Ni Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

72Ni

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
71.941785924 ± 0.000002401 Da
Mass Number72
G-Factor
0
Half Life
1.57 ± 0.05 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1987
Parity+

72Ni Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%

73Ni

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
72.946206681 ± 0.000002601 Da
Mass Number73
G-Factor
Half Life
840 ± 30 ms
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1987
Parity+

73Ni Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%

74Ni

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
73.947718 ± 0.000215 Da
Mass Number74
G-Factor
0
Half Life
507.7 ± 4.6 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1987
Parity+

74Ni Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%

75Ni

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
74.952506 ± 0.000215 Da
Mass Number75
G-Factor
Half Life
331.6 ± 3.2 ms
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1992
Parity+

75Ni Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)10%

76Ni

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
75.954707 ± 0.000322 Da
Mass Number76
G-Factor
0
Half Life
234.6 ± 2.7 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1995
Parity+

76Ni Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)14%

77Ni

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
76.959903 ± 0.000429 Da
Mass Number77
G-Factor
Half Life
158.9 ± 4.2 ms
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1995
Parity+

77Ni Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)26%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

78Ni

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
77.962555 ± 0.000429 Da
Mass Number78
G-Factor
0
Half Life
122.2 ± 5.1 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1995
Parity+

78Ni Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

79Ni

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
78.969769 ± 0.000537 Da
Mass Number79
G-Factor
Half Life
44 ± 8 ms
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2010
Parity+

79Ni Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

80Ni

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
79.975051 ± 0.000644 Da
Mass Number80
G-Factor
0
Half Life
30 ± 22 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2014
Parity+

80Ni Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

81Ni

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
80.982727 ± 0.000751 Da
Mass Number81
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2017
Parity+

81Ni Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%

82Ni

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
81.988492 ± 0.000859 Da
Mass Number82
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2017
Parity+

82Ni Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%

History

Artifacts made from metallic meteorites have been found dating from as early as 5000 BC. In 1751, Baron Axel Fredrik Cronstedt was trying to extract copper from kupfernickel and instead produced the white metal. In the early twentieth century, Ludwig Mond patented a process using nickel carbonyl to purify nickel. From the German word Nickel (Satan), and from kupfernickel, Old Nick's copper

DiscoverersAxel Cronstedt
Discovery LocationSweden
Discovery Year1751
Etymology (Name Origin)German: kupfernickel (false copper).
PronunciationNIK-l (English)
Nickel and its compounds are considered to be carcinogenic
Nickel is 100 times more concentrated below Earth's crust than in it

Uses

Nickel is used extensively to make coins and nickel steel for armor plates and burglar-proof vaults. Tubing made of copper-nickel alloy is extensively used in making desalination plants for converting sea water into fresh water. Nickel is also used in batteries, ceramics and magnets. Used in electroplating and metal alloys because of its resistance to corrosion. Also in nickel-cadmium batteries; as a catalyst and for coins.

Sources

Chiefly found in pentlandite [(Ni,Fe)9S8] ore. The metal is produced by heating the ore in a blast furnace which replaces the sulfur with oxygen. The oxides are then treated with an acid that reacts with the iron not the nickel.

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
Abundance in Oceans
0.00056 mg/L
Abundance in Human Body
0.00001 %
Abundance in Meteor
1.3 %
Abundance in Sun
0.008 %
Abundance in Universe
0.006 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s0.6474
2p3.9048
2s7.7874
3d15.4705
3p13.915
3s13.039
4s22.2892