Oxygen

Oxygen (O)

A colourless, odourless gaseous element belonging to group 16 of the periodic table. It is the most abundant element present in the earth's crust. It also makes up 20.8% of the Earth's atmosphere. For industrial purposes, it is separated from liquid air by fractional distillation. It is used in high temperature welding, and in breathing. It commonly comes in the form of Oxygen, but is found as Ozone in the upper atmosphere. It was discovered by Priestley in 1774.
Atomic Number8
Atomic Weight15.999
Mass Number16
Group16
Period2
Blockp
Protons8 p+
Neutrons8 n0
Electrons8 e-
Liquid oxygen in a beaker 4.jpg 8 oxygen (O) Bohr model.png Animated Bohr Model of O (Oxygen) Enhanced Bohr Model of O (Oxygen) Bohr Model: O (Oxygen) Orbital Diagram of O (Oxygen)

Properties

Atomic Radius
60 pm
Molar Volume
Covalent Radius
63 pm
Metallic Radius
Ionic Radius
135 pm
Crystal Radius
121 pm
Van der Waals Radius
152 pm
Density
0.001308 g/cm³
Energy
Proton Affinity
485.2 kJ/mol
Electron Affinity
1.4611135 eV/particle
Ionization Energy
13.618054 eV/particle
Heat of Vaporization
Heat of Fusion
Heat of Formation
249.229 kJ/mol
Electrons
Electron Shells2, 6
Valence Electrons2
Electron Configuration[He] 2s2 2p4
Oxidation States-2, -1, 0, 1, 2
Electronegativity
3.44
Electrophilicity
2.337978174823841 eV/particle
Phases
PhaseGas
Gas PhaseDiatomic
Boiling Point
90.188 K
Melting Point
54.36 K
Critical Pressure
5.043 MPa
Critical Temperature
154.581 K
Triple Point
54.3584 K
0.1463 kPa
Visual
Color
Colorless
Appearance
Refractive Index
1.000271
Thermodynamic Properties
Thermal Conductivity
0.027 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion
Molar Heat Capacity
29.378 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.918 J/(g⋅K)
Heat Capacity Ratio (Adiabatic Index)7/5
Electrical Properties
Type
Electrical Conductivity
Electrical Resistivity
Superconducting Point
Magnetism
Typeparamagnetic
Magnetic Susceptibility (Mass)
0.000001335 m³/Kg
Magnetic Susceptibility (Molar)
0.0000000427184 m³/mol
Magnetic Susceptibility (Volume)
0.00000190772
Magnetic Ordering
Curie Point
Neel Point
Structure
Crystal StructureBase Centered Monoclinic (CUB)
Lattice Constant
6.83 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, 2.313085, π/2
Mechanical Properties
Hardness
Bulk Modulus
Shear Modulus
Young Modulus
Poisson Ratio
Speed of Sound
317.5 m/s
Classification
CategoryOther nonmetals, Nonmetals
CAS GroupVIB
IUPAC GroupVIA
Glawe Number97
Mendeleev Number99
Pettifor Number101
Geochemical Classmajor
Goldschmidt Classlitophile
Other
Gas Basicity
459.6 kJ/mol
Dipole Polarizability
5.3 ± 0.2 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
15.6 a₀
AllotropesDioxygen, Ozone, Tetraoxygen
Neutron Cross Section
0.00028
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.000001
Quantum Numbers3P2
Space Group12 (C12/m1)

Isotopes of Oxygen

Stable Isotopes3
Unstable Isotopes15
Radioactive Isotopes13

11O

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
11.051249828 ± 0.000064453 Da
Mass Number11
G-Factor
Half Life
198 ± 12 ys
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2019
Parity-

11O Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
2p (2-proton emission)100%

12O

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
12.034367726 ± 0.000012882 Da
Mass Number12
G-Factor
0
Half Life
8.9 ± 3.3 zs
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1978
Parity+

12O Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
2p (2-proton emission)100%

13O

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
13.024815435 ± 0.000010226 Da
Mass Number13
G-Factor
0.92613333333333 ± 0.0002
Half Life
8.58 ± 0.05 ms
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.0111 ± 0.0008
Discovery Year1963
Parity-

13O Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)10.9%

14O

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
14.008596706 ± 0.000000027 Da
Mass Number14
G-Factor
0
Half Life
70.621 ± 0.011 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1949
Parity+

14O Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

15O

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
15.003065636 ± 0.000000526 Da
Mass Number15
G-Factor
1.43816 ± 0.00024
Half Life
122.266 ± 0.043 s
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1934
Parity-

15O Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

16O

Abundance
99.757 ± 0.011
Relative Atomic Mass
15.99491461926 ± 0.00000000032 Da
Mass Number16
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1919
Parity+

17O

Abundance
0.03835 ± 0.00096
Relative Atomic Mass
16.99913175595 ± 0.00000000069 Da
Mass Number17
G-Factor
-0.7574172 ± 0.000004
Half Life
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1925
Parity+

18O

Abundance
0.2045 ± 0.0102
Relative Atomic Mass
17.99915961214 ± 0.00000000069 Da
Mass Number18
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1929
Parity+

19O

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
19.003577969 ± 0.00000283 Da
Mass Number19
G-Factor
0.612952 ± 0.000028
Half Life
26.47 ± 0.006 s
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.00362 ± 0.00013
Discovery Year1936
Parity+

19O Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

20O

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
20.004075357 ± 0.00000095 Da
Mass Number20
G-Factor
0
Half Life
13.51 ± 0.05 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1959
Parity+

20O Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

21O

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
21.008654948 ± 0.000012882 Da
Mass Number21
G-Factor
Half Life
3.42 ± 0.1 s
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1968
Parity+

21O Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%

22O

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
22.009965744 ± 0.000061107 Da
Mass Number22
G-Factor
0
Half Life
2.25 ± 0.09 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1969
Parity+

22O Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)22%

23O

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
23.015696686 ± 0.000130663 Da
Mass Number23
G-Factor
Half Life
97 ± 8 ms
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1970
Parity+

23O Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)7%

24O

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
24.019861 ± 0.000177 Da
Mass Number24
G-Factor
0
Half Life
77.4 ± 4.5 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1970
Parity+

24O Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)43%

25O

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
25.029338919 ± 0.000177225 Da
Mass Number25
G-Factor
Half Life
5.18 ± 0.35 zs
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2008
Parity+

25O Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
n (neutron emission)100%

26O

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
26.037210155 ± 0.000177081 Da
Mass Number26
G-Factor
0
Half Life
4.2 ± 3.3 ps
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2012
Parity+

26O Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
2n (2-neutron emission)100%

27O

Abundance
Relative Atomic Mass
27.047955 ± 0.000537 Da
Mass Number27
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year
Parity+

27O Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
n (neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

28O

Abundance
Relative Atomic Mass
28.05591 ± 0.00075 Da
Mass Number28
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year
Parity+

28O Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
2n (2-neutron emission)%
β (β decay)0%

History

Carl Wilhelm Scheele obtained oxygen by heating mercuric oxide and nitrates in 1771, but did not publish his findings until 1777. Joseph Priestley also prepared this new air by 1774. The name oxygen was coined in 1777 by Antoine Lavoisier, whose experiments with oxygen helped to discredit the then-popular phlogiston theory of combustion and corrosion. From the Greek word oxys, acid, and genes, forming

DiscoverersJoseph Priestly, Carl Wilhelm Scheele
Discovery LocationEngland/Sweden
Discovery Year1774
Etymology (Name Origin)Greek: oxys and genes, (acid former).
PronunciationOK-si-jen (English)
Oxygen gas can be toxic at elevated partial pressures, leading to convulsions and other health problems
Green and red colors in the Aurora Borealis are caused by oxygen atoms

Uses

Pure oxygen is frequently used to help breathing in patients with respiratory ailments. Oxygen is used in oxyacetylene welding, as an oxidant for rocket fuel, and in methanol and ethylene oxide production. It is also used in the production of steel, plastics and textiles. Plants and animals rely on oxygen for respiration. Used in steel making, welding, and supporting life. Naturally occuring ozone (O3) in the upper atmosphere shields the earth from ultraviolet radiation.

Sources

Obtained primarily from liquid air by fractional distillation. Small amounts are made in the laboratory by electrolysis of water or heating potassium chlorate (KClO3) with manganese dioxide (MnO2) catalyst.

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
461,000 mg/kg
Abundance in Oceans
857,000 mg/L
Abundance in Human Body
61 %
Abundance in Meteor
40 %
Abundance in Sun
0.9 %
Abundance in Universe
1 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s0.3421
2p3.5468
2s3.5084