Rhenium

Rhenium (Re)

Silvery-white metallic transition element. Obtained as a by-product of molybdenum refinement. Rhenium-molybdenum alloys are superconducting.
Atomic Number75
Atomic Weight186.207
Mass Number187
Group7
Period6
Blockd
Protons75 p+
Neutrons112 n0
Electrons75 e-
Rhenium single crystal bar and 1cm3 cube.jpg Animated Bohr Model of Re (Rhenium) Enhanced Bohr Model of Re (Rhenium) Bohr Model: Re (Rhenium) Orbital Diagram of Re (Rhenium)

Properties

Atomic Radius
135 pm
Molar Volume
Covalent Radius
131 pm
Metallic Radius
128 pm
Ionic Radius
63 pm
Crystal Radius
77 pm
Van der Waals Radius
216 pm
Density
20.8 g/cm³
Energy
Proton Affinity
Electron Affinity
Ionization Energy
7.83352 eV/particle
Heat of Vaporization
704 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
Heat of Formation
774 kJ/mol
Electrons
Electron Shells2, 8, 18, 32, 13, 2
Valence Electrons7
Electron Configuration[Xe] 4f14 5d5 6s2
Oxidation States-3, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
Electronegativity
1.9
Electrophilicity
1.0369041726708592 eV/particle
Phases
PhaseSolid
Gas Phase
Boiling Point
5,863.15 K
Melting Point
3,458.15 K
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
Triple Point
Visual
Color
Gray
Appearancesilvery-grayish
Refractive Index
Thermodynamic Properties
Thermal Conductivity
Thermal Expansion
0.0000062 1/K
Molar Heat Capacity
25.48 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.137 J/(g⋅K)
Heat Capacity Ratio (Adiabatic Index)
Electrical Properties
TypeConductor
Electrical Conductivity
5.6 MS/m
Electrical Resistivity
0.00000018 m Ω
Superconducting Point
1.7 K
Magnetism
Typeparamagnetic
Magnetic Susceptibility (Mass)
0.00000000456 m³/Kg
Magnetic Susceptibility (Molar)
0.000000000849 m³/mol
Magnetic Susceptibility (Volume)
0.0000959
Magnetic Ordering
Curie Point
Neel Point
Structure
Crystal StructureSimple Hexagonal (HEX)
Lattice Constant
2.76 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, 2 π/3
Mechanical Properties
Hardness
7 MPa
Bulk Modulus
370 GPa
Shear Modulus
178 GPa
Young Modulus
463 GPa
Poisson Ratio
0.3
Speed of Sound
4,700 m/s
Classification
CategoryTransition metals, Transition metals
CAS GroupVIIA
IUPAC GroupVIIB
Glawe Number58
Mendeleev Number57
Pettifor Number59
Geochemical Class
Goldschmidt Classsiderophile
Other
Gas Basicity
Dipole Polarizability
62 ± 3 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
Allotropes
Neutron Cross Section
90
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.016
Quantum Numbers6S5/2
Space Group194 (P63/mmc)

Isotopes of Rhenium

Stable Isotopes2
Unstable Isotopes39
Radioactive Isotopes40

159Re

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
158.984106 ± 0.000327 Da
Mass Number159
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2006
Parity+

159Re Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
p (proton emission)%
α (α emission)%

160Re

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
159.98188 ± 0.000322 Da
Mass Number160
G-Factor
Half Life
611 ± 7 us
Spin4
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1992
Parity-

160Re Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
p (proton emission)89%
α (α emission)11%

161Re

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
160.977624313 ± 0.00016093 Da
Mass Number161
G-Factor
Half Life
440 ± 1 us
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1979
Parity+

161Re Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
p (proton emission)100%
α (α emission)%

162Re

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
161.975896 ± 0.000215 Da
Mass Number162
G-Factor
Half Life
107 ± 13 ms
Spin2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1979
Parity

162Re Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)94%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%

163Re

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
162.972085434 ± 0.000019897 Da
Mass Number163
G-Factor
Half Life
390 ± 70 ms
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1979
Parity+

163Re Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%
α (α emission)32%

164Re

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
163.970507122 ± 0.000058566 Da
Mass Number164
G-Factor
Half Life
719 ± 89 ms
Spin2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1979
Parity

164Re Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%

165Re

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
164.967085831 ± 0.000025328 Da
Mass Number165
G-Factor
Half Life
1.6 ± 0.6 s
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1981
Parity+

165Re Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)86%
α (α emission)14%

166Re

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
165.965821216 ± 0.000094731 Da
Mass Number166
G-Factor
Half Life
2.25 ± 0.21 s
Spin7
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1978
Parity+

166Re Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)88%
α (α emission)12%

167Re

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
166.962604 ± 0.000043 Da
Mass Number167
G-Factor
Half Life
3.4 ± 0.4 s
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1992
Parity-

167Re Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%

168Re

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
167.961572607 ± 0.000033087 Da
Mass Number168
G-Factor
Half Life
4.4 ± 0.1 s
Spin7
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1992
Parity+

168Re Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)0.005%

169Re

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
168.958765979 ± 0.000012204 Da
Mass Number169
G-Factor
Half Life
8.1 ± 0.5 s
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1978
Parity-

169Re Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%
α (α emission)0.005%

170Re

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
169.958234844 ± 0.000012267 Da
Mass Number170
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin8
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1974
Parity-

170Re Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

171Re

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
170.955716 ± 0.00003 Da
Mass Number171
G-Factor
Half Life
15.2 ± 0.4 s
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1987
Parity-

171Re Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

172Re

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
171.955376165 ± 0.000038183 Da
Mass Number172
G-Factor
Half Life
55 ± 5 s
Spin2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1977
Parity+

172Re Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

173Re

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
172.953243 ± 0.00003 Da
Mass Number173
G-Factor
Half Life
2 ± 0.3 m
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1986
Parity-

173Re Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

174Re

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
173.953115 ± 0.00003 Da
Mass Number174
G-Factor
Half Life
2.4 ± 0.04 m
Spin3
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1972
Parity+

174Re Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

175Re

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
174.951381 ± 0.00003 Da
Mass Number175
G-Factor
Half Life
5.89 ± 0.05 m
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1967
Parity-

175Re Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

176Re

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
175.951623 ± 0.00003 Da
Mass Number176
G-Factor
Half Life
5.3 ± 0.3 m
Spin3
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1967
Parity+

176Re Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

177Re

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
176.950328 ± 0.00003 Da
Mass Number177
G-Factor
Half Life
14 ± 1 m
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1957
Parity-

177Re Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

178Re

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
177.950989 ± 0.00003 Da
Mass Number178
G-Factor
Half Life
13.2 ± 0.2 m
Spin3
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1957
Parity+

178Re Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

179Re

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
178.949989686 ± 0.00002645 Da
Mass Number179
G-Factor
1.12 ± 0.16
Half Life
19.5 ± 0.1 m
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1960
Parity+

179Re Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

180Re

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
179.950791568 ± 0.000022965 Da
Mass Number180
G-Factor
1.6 ± 0.2
Half Life
2.46 ± 0.03 m
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1955
Parity

180Re Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

181Re

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
180.950061507 ± 0.000013471 Da
Mass Number181
G-Factor
1.276 ± 0.028
Half Life
19.9 ± 0.7 h
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1957
Parity+

181Re Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

182Re

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
181.95121156 ± 0.000109483 Da
Mass Number182
G-Factor
0.40571428571429 ± 0.0085714285714286
Half Life
64.2 ± 0.5 h
Spin7
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1950
Parity+

182Re Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

183Re

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
182.950821306 ± 0.000008625 Da
Mass Number183
G-Factor
1.2632 ± 0.006
Half Life
70 ± 1.4 d
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1950
Parity+

183Re Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

184Re

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
183.952528073 ± 0.00000459 Da
Mass Number184
G-Factor
0.84333333333333 ± 0.016666666666667
Half Life
35.4 ± 0.7 d
Spin3
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1940
Parity-

184Re Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

185Re

Abundance
37.4 ± 0.05
Relative Atomic Mass
184.95295832 ± 0.000000879 Da
Mass Number185
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
2.07 ± 0.05
Discovery Year1931
Parity+

186Re

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
185.954989172 ± 0.00000088 Da
Mass Number186
G-Factor
1.734 ± 0.003
Half Life
3.7185 ± 0.0005 d
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1939
Parity-

186Re Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)92.53%
ϵ (electron capture)7.47%

187Re

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
62.6 ± 0.05
Relative Atomic Mass
186.955752217 ± 0.000000791 Da
Mass Number187
G-Factor
Half Life
41.6 ± 0.02 Gy
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
1.94 ± 0.05
Discovery Year1931
Parity+

187Re Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
α (α emission)0%

188Re

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
187.958113658 ± 0.000000792 Da
Mass Number188
G-Factor
1.783 ± 0.005
Half Life
17.005 ± 0.003 h
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1939
Parity-

188Re Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

189Re

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
188.959227764 ± 0.000008793 Da
Mass Number189
G-Factor
Half Life
24.3 ± 0.4 h
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1963
Parity+

189Re Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

190Re

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
189.961800064 ± 0.000005227 Da
Mass Number190
G-Factor
Half Life
3 ± 0.2 m
Spin2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1955
Parity

190Re Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

191Re

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
190.963123322 ± 0.000011019 Da
Mass Number191
G-Factor
Half Life
9.8 ± 0.5 m
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1963
Parity+

191Re Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

192Re

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
191.966088 ± 0.000076 Da
Mass Number192
G-Factor
0
Half Life
15.4 ± 0.5 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1965
Parity-

192Re Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

193Re

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
192.967545 ± 0.000042 Da
Mass Number193
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1999
Parity+

193Re Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%

194Re

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
193.970735 ± 0.000215 Da
Mass Number194
G-Factor
Half Life
5 ± 1 s
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1999
Parity-

194Re Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

195Re

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
194.97256 ± 0.000322 Da
Mass Number195
G-Factor
Half Life
6 ± 1 s
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2008
Parity+

195Re Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

196Re

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
195.975996 ± 0.000322 Da
Mass Number196
G-Factor
Half Life
2.4 ± 1.5 s
Spin
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2008
Parity

196Re Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%

197Re

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
196.978153 ± 0.000322 Da
Mass Number197
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2009
Parity+

197Re Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%

198Re

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
197.98176 ± 0.000429 Da
Mass Number198
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2009
Parity

198Re Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%

199Re

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
198.984187 ± 0.000429 Da
Mass Number199
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2012
Parity+

199Re Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%

History

In 1908, Japanese chemist Masataka Ogawa announced that he discovered the 43rd element. However, later analysis indicated the presence of rhenium (element 75), not element 43. In 1922, Walter Noddack, Ida Eva Tacke and Otto Berg announced its separation from gadolinite and gave it the present name. From the Latin word Rhenus meaning Rhine

DiscoverersWalter Noddack, Ida Tacke, Otto Berg
Discovery LocationGermany
Discovery Year1925
Etymology (Name Origin)Latin: Rhenus, the Rhine River.
PronunciationREE-ni-em (English)
Very little is known about the toxicity of rhenium
Chile has the world's largest rhenium reserves

Uses

Rhenium is widely used as filaments for mass spectrographs and ion gauges. It is also used with platinum as catalysts in the production of lead-free, high-octane gasoline. Nickel-based superalloys of rhenium are used in the combustion chambers, turbine blades, and exhaust nozzles of jet engines. Mixed with tungsten or platinum to make filaments for mass spectrographs. Its main value is as a trace alloying agent for hardening metal components that are subjected to continuous frictional forces.

Sources

Found in small amounts in gadolinite and molybdenite. Has a very high melting point.

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
0.0007 mg/kg
Abundance in Oceans
0.000004 mg/L
Abundance in Human Body
Abundance in Meteor
0.0000049 %
Abundance in Sun
0.00000001 %
Abundance in Universe
0.00000002 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s1.4522
2p4.438
2s19.5902
3d13.5453
3p21.5655
3s22.3515
4d36.9456
4f39.0752
4p34.6268
4s33.6436
5d57.617
5p52.856
5s50.643
6s64.884