Rutenium

Rutenium (Ru)

chemical element with symbol Ru and atomic number 44
Atomic Number44
Atomic Weight101.07
Nombor jisim102
Group8
Period5
Blockd
proton44 p+
neutron58 n0
Elektron44 e-
Animated Model Bohr of Ru (Rutenium)

Sifat Fizikal

Jejari Atom
130 pm
molar volume
Jejari kovalen
125 pm
Metallic Radius
125 pm
ionic radius
68 pm
Crystal Radius
82 pm
Jejari van der Waals
213 pm
ketumpatan
12.1 g/cm³
Atomic Radii Of The Elements: Rutenium0102030405060708090100110120130140150160170180190200210220pmJejari AtomJejari KovalenMetallic RadiusJejari van der Waals

Sifat Kimia

tenaga
proton affinity
774 kJ/mol
Pertalian elektron
ionization energy
ionization energy of Ru (Rutenium)
Entalpi pengewapan
entalpi pelakuran
25.5 kJ/mol
standard enthalpy of formation
650.6 kJ/mol
Elektron
Petala elektron2, 8, 18, 15, 1
Model Bohr: Ru (Rutenium)
Elektron valens1
Teori ion Lewis: Ru (Rutenium)
tatarajah elektron[Kr] 4d7 5s1
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 4d7 5s1
Enhanced Model Bohr of Ru (Rutenium)
Orbital Diagram of Ru (Rutenium)
Keadaan pengoksidaan-4, -2, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
Keelektronegatifan
2.2
Electrophilicity Index
1.4011669093178039 eV/particle
keadaan jirim asas
fasa jirimSolid
gaseous state of matter
Boiling Point
4,420.15 K
Melting Point
2,606.15 K
critical pressure
critical temperature
triple point
rupa
warna
Silver
rupasilvery white metallic
indeks biasan
sifat bahan
Thermal Conductivity
Pengembangan terma
0.0000064 1/K
molar heat capacity
24.06 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.238 J/(g⋅K)
heat capacity ratio
electrical properties
typeConductor
Kekonduksian elektrik
14 MS/m
Kerintangan dan kekonduksian elektrik
0.00000007000000000002 m Ω
Kesuperkonduksian
0.49 K
kemagnetan
typeparamagnetic
magnetic susceptibility (Mass)
0.00000000542 m³/Kg
magnetic susceptibility (Molar)
0.000000000548 m³/mol
magnetic susceptibility (Volume)
0.000067
magnetic ordering
Suhu Curie
Néel temperature
struktur
Crystal StructureSimple Hexagonal (HEX)
lattice constant
2.7 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, 2 π/3
mechanical property
hardness
6.5 MPa
Modulus pukal
220 GPa
shear modulus
173 GPa
Young's modulus
447 GPa
Nisbah Poisson
0.3
Kelajuan bunyi
5,970 m/s
pengelasan
CategoryTransition metals, Transition metals
CAS GroupVIIIA
IUPAC GroupVIII
Glawe Number61
Mendeleev Number60
Pettifor Number63
Geochemical Classnoble metal
Goldschmidt classificationsiderophile

other

Gas Basicity
751.4 kJ/mol
polarizability
72 ± 10 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
allotrope
Neutron cross section
2.6
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.0009
Nombor kuantum5F5
space group194 (P63/mmc)

Isotopes of Ruthenium

Stable Isotopes5
Unstable Isotopes36
Natural Isotopes7
Isotopic Composition10231.55%10231.55%10418.62%10418.62%10117.06%10117.06%9912.76%9912.76%10012.60%10012.60%965.54%965.54%981.87%981.87%

85Ru

Nombor jisim85
nombor neutron41
jisim atom relatif
84.967117 ± 0.000537 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan2013
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)
p (proton emission)

86Ru

Nombor jisim86
nombor neutron42
jisim atom relatif
85.957305 ± 0.000429 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan2013
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

87Ru

Nombor jisim87
nombor neutron43
jisim atom relatif
86.950907 ± 0.000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1995
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

88Ru

Nombor jisim88
nombor neutron44
jisim atom relatif
87.941664 ± 0.000322 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
1.5 ± 0.3 s
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1994
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)3.6%

89Ru

Nombor jisim89
nombor neutron45
jisim atom relatif
88.937337849 ± 0.000026 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
1.32 ± 0.03 s
Spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1992
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)3.1%

90Ru

Nombor jisim90
nombor neutron46
jisim atom relatif
89.930344378 ± 0.000004004 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
11.7 ± 0.9 s
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1991
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

91Ru

Nombor jisim91
nombor neutron47
jisim atom relatif
90.92674153 ± 0.000002384 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
8 ± 0.4 s
Spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1983
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

92Ru

Nombor jisim92
nombor neutron48
jisim atom relatif
91.920234373 ± 0.000002917 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
3.65 ± 0.05 m
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1971
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

93Ru

Nombor jisim93
nombor neutron49
jisim atom relatif
92.917104442 ± 0.000002216 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
59.7 ± 0.6 s
Spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1972
parity

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

94Ru

Nombor jisim94
nombor neutron50
jisim atom relatif
93.91134286 ± 0.000003374 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
51.8 ± 0.6 m
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1952
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

95Ru

Nombor jisim95
nombor neutron51
jisim atom relatif
94.910404415 ± 0.0000102 Da
g-factor
0.3444 ± 0.0028
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
1.607 ± 0.004 h
Spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1948
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

96Ru

Nombor jisim96
nombor neutron52
jisim atom relatif
95.90758891 ± 0.000000182 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
5.54 ± 0.14
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1931
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
+ (double β+ decay)

97Ru

Nombor jisim97
nombor neutron53
jisim atom relatif
96.907545776 ± 0.000002965 Da
g-factor
0.3148 ± 0.0032
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
2.837 ± 0.0014 d
Spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1946
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

98Ru

Nombor jisim98
nombor neutron54
jisim atom relatif
97.905286709 ± 0.000006937 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
1.87 ± 0.03
Reputan radioaktifIsotop stabil
setengah hayatNot Radioactive ☢️
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1944
parity+

99Ru

Nombor jisim99
nombor neutron55
jisim atom relatif
98.905930284 ± 0.000000368 Da
g-factor
-0.2564 ± 0.002
natural abundance
12.76 ± 0.14
Reputan radioaktifIsotop stabil
setengah hayatNot Radioactive ☢️
Spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.079 ± 0.004
tarikh penemuan1931
parity+

100Ru

Nombor jisim100
nombor neutron56
jisim atom relatif
99.90421046 ± 0.000000367 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
12.6 ± 0.07
Reputan radioaktifIsotop stabil
setengah hayatNot Radioactive ☢️
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1931
parity+

101Ru

Nombor jisim101
nombor neutron57
jisim atom relatif
100.905573086 ± 0.000000443 Da
g-factor
-0.2872 ± 0.0024
natural abundance
17.06 ± 0.02
Reputan radioaktifIsotop stabil
setengah hayatNot Radioactive ☢️
Spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.46 ± 0.02
tarikh penemuan1931
parity+

102Ru

Nombor jisim102
nombor neutron58
jisim atom relatif
101.904340312 ± 0.000000446 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
31.55 ± 0.14
Reputan radioaktifIsotop stabil
setengah hayatNot Radioactive ☢️
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1931
parity+

103Ru

Nombor jisim103
nombor neutron59
jisim atom relatif
102.906314846 ± 0.000000473 Da
g-factor
0.13733333333333 ± 0.002
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
39.245 ± 0.008 d
Spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.62 ± 0.02
tarikh penemuan1945
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

104Ru

Nombor jisim104
nombor neutron60
jisim atom relatif
103.905425312 ± 0.000002682 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
18.62 ± 0.27
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1931
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
(double β decay)

105Ru

Nombor jisim105
nombor neutron61
jisim atom relatif
104.907745478 ± 0.000002683 Da
g-factor
0.2 ± 0.13333333333333
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
4.439 ± 0.011 h
Spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1945
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

106Ru

Nombor jisim106
nombor neutron62
jisim atom relatif
105.907328181 ± 0.000005787 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
371.8 ± 1.8 d
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1948
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

107Ru

Nombor jisim107
nombor neutron63
jisim atom relatif
106.909969837 ± 0.00000931 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
3.75 ± 0.05 m
Spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1951
parity

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

108Ru

Nombor jisim108
nombor neutron64
jisim atom relatif
107.910185793 ± 0.000009318 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
4.55 ± 0.05 m
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1955
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

109Ru

Nombor jisim109
nombor neutron65
jisim atom relatif
108.913323707 ± 0.000009612 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
34.4 ± 0.2 s
Spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1967
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

110Ru

Nombor jisim110
nombor neutron66
jisim atom relatif
109.914038501 ± 0.00000958 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
12.04 ± 0.17 s
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1970
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

111Ru

Nombor jisim111
nombor neutron67
jisim atom relatif
110.917567566 ± 0.000010394 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
2.12 ± 0.07 s
Spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1971
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

112Ru

Nombor jisim112
nombor neutron68
jisim atom relatif
111.918806922 ± 0.000010305 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
1.75 ± 0.07 s
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1970
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

113Ru

Nombor jisim113
nombor neutron69
jisim atom relatif
112.922846729 ± 0.000041097 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
800 ± 50 ms
Spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1988
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

114Ru

Nombor jisim114
nombor neutron70
jisim atom relatif
113.92461443 ± 0.000003817 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
540 ± 30 ms
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1991
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

115Ru

Nombor jisim115
nombor neutron71
jisim atom relatif
114.929033049 ± 0.000027016 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
318 ± 19 ms
Spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1992
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

116Ru

Nombor jisim116
nombor neutron72
jisim atom relatif
115.931219191 ± 0.000004 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
204 ± 6 ms
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1994
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

117Ru

Nombor jisim117
nombor neutron73
jisim atom relatif
116.936135 ± 0.000465 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
151 ± 3 ms
Spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1994
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

118Ru

Nombor jisim118
nombor neutron74
jisim atom relatif
117.938808 ± 0.000215 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
99 ± 3 ms
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1994
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

119Ru

Nombor jisim119
nombor neutron75
jisim atom relatif
118.94409 ± 0.000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
69.5 ± 2 ms
Spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1997
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

120Ru

Nombor jisim120
nombor neutron76
jisim atom relatif
119.946623 ± 0.000429 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
45 ± 2 ms
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan2010
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

121Ru

Nombor jisim121
nombor neutron77
jisim atom relatif
120.952098 ± 0.000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
29 ± 2 ms
Spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan2010
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

122Ru

Nombor jisim122
nombor neutron78
jisim atom relatif
121.955147 ± 0.000537 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
25 ± 1 ms
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan2010
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

123Ru

Nombor jisim123
nombor neutron79
jisim atom relatif
122.960762 ± 0.000537 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
19 ± 2 ms
Spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan2010
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

124Ru

Nombor jisim124
nombor neutron80
jisim atom relatif
123.96394 ± 0.000644 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
15 ± 3 ms
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan2010
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

125Ru

Nombor jisim125
nombor neutron81
jisim atom relatif
124.969544 ± 0.000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan2018
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)
Ruthenium a half bar

sejarah

penemu atau perekaKarl Klaus
tempat penemuanRussia
tarikh penemuan1844
EtimologiLatin: Ruthenia (Russia).
sebutanroo-THE-ni-em (Inggeris)

sumber

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
0.001 mg/kg
natural abundance (lautan)
0.0000007 mg/L
natural abundance (Tubuh manusia)
natural abundance (Meteoroid)
0.000081 %
natural abundance (Matahari)
0.0000005 %
Abundance in Universe
0.0000004 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s0.9077
2p4.0492
2s11.6202
3d14.6411
3p16.7789
3s16.3988
4d31.1872
4p27.5652
4s26.344
5s37.5155