Sulfur

Sulfur (S)

Yellow, nonmetallic element belonging to group 16 of the periodic table. It is an essential element in living organisms, needed in the amino acids cysteine and methionine, and hence in many proteins. Absorbed by plants from the soil as sulphate ion.
Atomic Number16
Atomic Weight32.06
Mass Number32
Group16
Period3
Blockp
Protons16 p+
Neutrons16 n0
Electrons16 e-
Sulfur - El Desierto mine, San Pablo de Napa, Daniel Campos Province, Potosí, Bolivia.jpg Animated Bohr Model Enhanced Bohr Model Bohr Model Orbital Diagram

Properties

Atomic Radius
100 pm
Atomic Volume
Covalent Radius
103 pm
Metallic Radius
104 pm
Ionic Radius
184 pm
Crystal Radius
170 pm
Van der Waals radius
180 pm
Density
2.07 g/cm³
Boiling Point
717.824 K
Melting Point
386 K
Electrons per shell2, 8, 6
Electronegativity
2.58
Electrophilicity
2.3343529124239 eV/particle
Proton Affinity
664.3 kJ/mol
Electron Affinity
2.07710403 eV/particle
Ionization Potential
10.36001 eV/particle
Heat of Vaporization
10.5 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
1.23 kJ/mol
Heat of Formation
277.17 kJ/mol
Molar Heat Capacity
Specific Heat Capacity
0.708 J/(g⋅K)
Thermal Conductivity
0.27 W/(m K)
Gas Basicity
640.2 kJ/mol
Dipole Polarizability
19.4 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
134 a₀
Oxidation States-2, -1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Color
Yellow
Crystal StructureFace Centered Orthorhombic (ORC)
Lattice Constant
10.47 Å
Bulk Modulus
Electrical Resistivity
Electron Configuration[Ne] 3s2 3p4
Magnetic Ordering
Magnetic Susceptibility
PhaseSolid
Poisson Ratio
Shear Modulus
Young's Modulus
Allotropes
Alternate Names
Adiabatic Index
Appearance
Electric Conductivity
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
Curie Point
Electrical
Hardness
Magnetic Susceptibility
Magnetic
Neel Point
Neutron Cross Section
Neutron Mass Absorption
Gas Phase
Quantum Numbers
Refractive Index
Space Group
Speed of Sound
Superconducting Point
Thermal Expansion
Valence Electrons
Classification
CategoryOther nonmetals, Nonmetals
CAS GroupVIB
IUPAC GroupVIA
Glawe Number96
Mendeleev Number100
Pettifor Number94
Geochemical Classsemi-volatile
Goldschmidt Classchalcophile
Radioactivity
RadioactiveNo
Decay Mode
Half-Life
Lifetime
Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
350 mg/kg
Abundance in Oceans
905 mg/L
Abundance in Human Body
Abundance in Meteor
Abundance in Sun
Abundance in Universe0.05%

Isotopes of Sulfur

Stable Isotopes
32S 33S 34S 36S
Unstable Isotopes
26S 27S 28S 29S 30S 31S 35S 37S 38S 39S 40S 41S 42S 43S 44S 45S 46S 47S 48S 49S

History

By the 3rd century, the Chinese discovered that sulfur could be extracted from pyrite. Indian alchemists wrote extensively about the use of sulfur in alchemical operations with mercury, from the eighth century AD onwards. In 1777, Antoine Lavoisier helped convince the scientific community that sulfur was an element, not a compound. Known to the ancients; referred to in Genesis as brimstone

DiscoverersKnown to the ancients.
Discovery Location
Discovery Year
Name OriginLatin: sulphur (brimstone).
Elemental sulfur is considered to be of low toxicity
Penicillin is a natural, sulfur-based antibiotic

Uses

Sulfur's main commercial use is as a reactant in the production of sulfuric acid. Sulfur is a component of black gunpowder, and is used in the vulcanization of natural rubber and a fungicide. It is used to make sulfite paper and other papers, to fumigate fumigant, and to bleach dried fruits. It is also used extensively in making phosphatic fertilizers. Used in matches, gunpowder, medicines, rubber and pesticides, dyes and insecticides. Also for making sulfuric acid (H2SO4).

Sources

Found in pure form and in ores like cinnabar, galena, sphalerite and stibnite. Pure form is obtained from undergound deposits by the Frasch process.