Sulfur

Sulfur (S)

Sulfur is the 16th element in the periodic table and has a symbol of S and atomic number of 16. It has an atomic weight of 32.060 and a mass number of 32. Sulfur has sixteen protons and sixteen neutrons in its nucleus, and sixteen electrons in three shells. It is located in group sixteen, period three and block p of the periodic table. Yellow, nonmetallic element belonging to group 16 of the periodic table. It is an essential element in living organisms, needed in the amino acids cysteine and methionine, and hence in many proteins. Absorbed by plants from the soil as sulphate ion.
Atomic Number16
Atomic Weight32.06
Mass Number32
Group16
Period3
Blockp
Protons16 p+
Neutrons16 n0
Electrons16 e-
Animated Bohr Model of S (Sulfur)

Physical Properties

Atomic Radius
100 pm
Molar Volume
Covalent Radius
103 pm
Metallic Radius
104 pm
Ionic Radius
184 pm
Crystal Radius
170 pm
Van der Waals Radius
180 pm
Density
2.07 g/cm³
Atomic Radii of the Elements: Sulfur0153045607590105120135150165180pmAtomic RadiusCovalent RadiusMetallic RadiusVan der Waals Radius

Chemical Properties

Energy
Proton Affinity
664.3 kJ/mol
Electron Affinity
2.07710403 eV/particle
Ionization Energy
10.36001 eV/particle
Ionization Energies of S (Sulfur)
Heat of Vaporization
10.5 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
1.23 kJ/mol
Heat of Formation
277.17 kJ/mol
Electrons
Electron Shells2, 8, 6
Bohr Model: S (Sulfur)
Valence Electrons6
Lewis Structure: S (Sulfur)
Electron Configuration[Ne] 3s2 3p4
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p4
Enhanced Bohr Model of S (Sulfur)
Orbital Diagram of S (Sulfur)
Oxidation States-2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Electronegativity
2.58
Electrophilicity Index
2.3343529124239053 eV/particle
States of Matter
PhaseSolid
Gas Phase
Boiling Point
717.76 K
Melting Point
368.35 K
Critical Pressure
20.7 MPa
Critical Temperature
1,314.15 K
Triple Point
Visual

Sulfur is a Yellow. S has a CPK of #ffc832, Jmol of #ffff30, and MOLCAS GV of #fff529. The Appearance of Element 16 is lemon yellow sintered microcrystals. The Refractive Index of Sulfur (S) is 1.001111.

Color
Yellow
Appearancelemon yellow sintered microcrystals
Refractive Index
1.001111
Thermodynamic Properties
Thermal Conductivity
0.27 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion
Molar Heat Capacity
Specific Heat Capacity
0.708 J/(g⋅K)
Heat Capacity Ratio (Adiabatic Index)
Electrical Properties
TypeInsulator
Electrical Conductivity
0.000000000000000000001 MS/m
Electrical Resistivity
1,000,000,000,000,000 m Ω
Superconducting Point
Magnetism
Typediamagnetic
Magnetic Susceptibility (Mass)
-0.0000000062 m³/Kg
Magnetic Susceptibility (Molar)
-0.000000000199 m³/mol
Magnetic Susceptibility (Volume)
-0.0000122
Magnetic Ordering
Curie Point
Neel Point
Structure

The Crystal Structure of Sulfur is ORC. The lattice constant of S is 10.47 Å. The lattice angles of Element 16 are π/2, π/2, π/2.

Crystal StructureFace Centered Orthorhombic (ORC)
Lattice Constant
10.47 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, π/2
Mechanical Properties

Sulfur has a Mohs hardness of 2 MPa. The Bulk Modulus of S is 7.7 GPa.

Hardness
2 MPa
Bulk Modulus
7.7 GPa
Shear Modulus
Young's Modulus
Poisson Ratio
Speed of Sound
Classification

The CAS Group of Sulfur is VIB. The IUPAC Group of S is VIA. The Glawe Number of Element 16 is 96. The Mendeleev Number of Sulfur (S) is 100. The Pettifor Number of Sulfur is 94. The Geochemical Class of S is semi-volatile. The Goldschmidt Class of Element 16 is chalcophile.

CategoryOther nonmetals, Nonmetals
CAS GroupVIB
IUPAC GroupVIA
Glawe Number96
Mendeleev Number100
Pettifor Number94
Geochemical Classsemi-volatile
Goldschmidt Classchalcophile

Other

The Gas Basicity of Sulfur is 640.2 kJ/mol. The Dipole Polarizability of S is 19.4 plus or minus 0.1 a₀. Element 16 has a C6 Dispersion Coefficient (CD) of 134 a₀, and C6 Dispersion Coefficient (GB) of 140 a₀. The Allotropes of Sulfur (S) are Rhombic Sulphur, Monoclinic Sulphur, Amorphous Sulphur. The Neutron Cross Section of Sulfur is 0.52. The Neutron Mass Absorption of S is 0.00055. The Quantum Numbers of Element 16 is 3P2. The Space Group of Sulfur (S) is 70 (Fddd).

Gas Basicity
640.2 kJ/mol
Dipole Polarizability
19.4 ± 0.1 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
134 a₀
AllotropesRhombic Sulphur, Monoclinic Sulphur, Amorphous Sulphur
Neutron Cross Section
0.52
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.00055
Quantum Numbers3P2
Space Group70 (Fddd)

Isotopes of Sulfur

Stable Isotopes4
Unstable Isotopes20
Natural Isotopes4
Isotopic Composition3294.86%3294.86%344.37%344.37%330.76%330.76%360.02%360.02%

26S

Mass Number26
Neutron Number10
Relative Atomic Mass
26.029716 ± 0.000644 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
2p (2-proton emission)

27S

Mass Number27
Neutron Number11
Relative Atomic Mass
27.018777 ± 0.00043 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
16.3 ± 0.2 ms
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1986
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)61%
2p (2-proton emission)3%

28S

Mass Number28
Neutron Number12
Relative Atomic Mass
28.004372762 ± 0.000171767 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
125 ± 10 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1982
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)20.7%

29S

Mass Number29
Neutron Number13
Relative Atomic Mass
28.996678 ± 0.000014 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
188 ± 4 ms
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1964
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)46.4%

30S

Mass Number30
Neutron Number14
Relative Atomic Mass
29.98490677 ± 0.000000221 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
1.1798 ± 0.0003 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1961
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

31S

Mass Number31
Neutron Number15
Relative Atomic Mass
30.979557002 ± 0.000000246 Da
G-Factor
0.97586 ± 0.00016
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
2.5534 ± 0.0018 s
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1940
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

32S

Mass Number32
Neutron Number16
Relative Atomic Mass
31.97207117354 ± 0.00000000141 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
94.85 ± 2.55
RadioactivityStable
Half LifeNot Radioactive ☢️
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1920
Parity+

33S

Mass Number33
Neutron Number17
Relative Atomic Mass
32.97145890862 ± 0.00000000144 Da
G-Factor
0.42883333333333 ± 0.000013333333333333
Abundance
0.763 ± 0.02
RadioactivityStable
Half LifeNot Radioactive ☢️
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
-0.694 ± 0.004
Discovery Year1926
Parity+

34S

Mass Number34
Neutron Number18
Relative Atomic Mass
33.967867011 ± 0.000000047 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
4.365 ± 0.235
RadioactivityStable
Half LifeNot Radioactive ☢️
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1926
Parity+

35S

Mass Number35
Neutron Number19
Relative Atomic Mass
34.969032321 ± 0.000000043 Da
G-Factor
0.66666666666667 ± 0.026666666666667
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
87.37 ± 0.04 d
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
-0.483 ± 0.003
Discovery Year1936
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

36S

Mass Number36
Neutron Number20
Relative Atomic Mass
35.967080692 ± 0.000000201 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
0.0158 ± 0.0017
RadioactivityStable
Half LifeNot Radioactive ☢️
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1938
Parity+

37S

Mass Number37
Neutron Number21
Relative Atomic Mass
36.9711255 ± 0.000000212 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
5.05 ± 0.02 m
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1945
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

38S

Mass Number38
Neutron Number22
Relative Atomic Mass
37.9711633 ± 0.000007699 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
170.3 ± 0.7 m
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1958
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

39S

Mass Number39
Neutron Number23
Relative Atomic Mass
38.97513385 ± 0.000053677 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
11.5 ± 0.5 s
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1971
Parity

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

40S

Mass Number40
Neutron Number24
Relative Atomic Mass
39.975482561 ± 0.000004274 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
8.8 ± 2.2 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1971
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

41S

Mass Number41
Neutron Number25
Relative Atomic Mass
40.979593451 ± 0.0000044 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
1.99 ± 0.05 s
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1979
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

42S

Mass Number42
Neutron Number26
Relative Atomic Mass
41.9810651 ± 0.000003 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
1.016 ± 0.015 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1979
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)1%

43S

Mass Number43
Neutron Number27
Relative Atomic Mass
42.986907635 ± 0.000005335 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
265 ± 13 ms
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1979
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)40%

44S

Mass Number44
Neutron Number28
Relative Atomic Mass
43.990118846 ± 0.0000056 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
100 ± 1 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1979
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)18%

45S

Mass Number45
Neutron Number29
Relative Atomic Mass
44.996414 ± 0.000322 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
68 ± 2 ms
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1989
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)54%
2n (2-neutron emission)

46S

Mass Number46
Neutron Number30
Relative Atomic Mass
46.000687 ± 0.000429 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
50 ± 8 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1989
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

47S

Mass Number47
Neutron Number31
Relative Atomic Mass
47.00773 ± 0.000429 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1989
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

48S

Mass Number48
Neutron Number32
Relative Atomic Mass
48.013301 ± 0.000537 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1990
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

49S

Mass Number49
Neutron Number33
Relative Atomic Mass
49.021891 ± 0.000626 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2018
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)
Sulfur - El Desierto mine, San Pablo de Napa, Daniel Campos Province, Potosí, Bolivia

History

By the 3rd century, the Chinese discovered that sulfur could be extracted from pyrite. Indian alchemists wrote extensively about the use of sulfur in alchemical operations with mercury, from the eighth century AD onwards. In 1777, Antoine Lavoisier helped convince the scientific community that sulfur was an element, not a compound. Known to the ancients; referred to in Genesis as brimstone

DiscoverersKnown to the ancients.
Discovery Location
Discovery Year
Etymology (Name Origin)Latin: sulphur (brimstone).
PronunciationSUL-fer (English)
Elemental sulfur is considered to be of low toxicity
Penicillin is a natural, sulfur-based antibiotic

Uses

Sulfur's main commercial use is as a reactant in the production of sulfuric acid. Sulfur is a component of black gunpowder, and is used in the vulcanization of natural rubber and a fungicide. It is used to make sulfite paper and other papers, to fumigate fumigant, and to bleach dried fruits. It is also used extensively in making phosphatic fertilizers. Used in matches, gunpowder, medicines, rubber and pesticides, dyes and insecticides. Also for making sulfuric acid (H2SO4).

Sources

Found in pure form and in ores like cinnabar, galena, sphalerite and stibnite. Pure form is obtained from undergound deposits by the Frasch process.

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
350 mg/kg
Natural Abundance (Oceans)
905 mg/L
Natural Abundance (Human Body)
0.2 %
Natural Abundance (Meteor)
4 %
Natural Abundance (Sun)
0.04 %
Abundance in Universe
0.05 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s0.4591
2p4.023
2s5.3712
3p10.5181
3s9.6331

Also Known As

  • S
  • element 16
  • 16S
  • sulphur
  • brimstone

Translations

  • Italianzolfo
  • Norwegian Bokmålsvovel
  • Frenchsoufre
  • GermanSchwefel
  • Dutchzwavel
  • Spanishazufre
  • Chinese (Traditional)
  • Afrikaansswawel
  • Amharicድኝ
  • AragoneseIxufre
  • Arabicكبريت
  • Asturianazufre
  • Aymaraasuphri
  • Azerbaijanikükürd
  • Belarusianсера
  • Bulgarianсяра
  • Banglaগন্ধক
  • Bretonsulfur
  • Bosniansumpor
  • Catalansofre
  • Central Kurdishگۆگرد
  • Corsicanzolfu
  • Czechsíra
  • ChuvashКӳкĕрт
  • Welshsylffwr
  • Danishsvovl
  • Divehiސަލްފަރު
  • Greekθείο
  • Esperantosulfuro
  • EstonianVäävel
  • Basquesufre
  • Persianگوگرد
  • Finnishrikki
  • Northern FrisianSwoowel
  • FriulianSolfar
  • IrishSulfar
  • Galicianxofre
  • GuaraniItaysy
  • Gujaratiગંધક
  • ManxSulfur
  • Hakka Chineseliù-vòng
  • Hawaiiansulufura
  • Hebrewגופרית
  • Hindiगंधक
  • Fiji Hindisulfur
  • Croatiansumpor
  • Upper Sorbiansyrik
  • Haitian Creolesouf
  • Hungariankén
  • Armenianծծումբ
  • Interlinguasulfure
  • Indonesianbelerang
  • Idosulfo
  • Icelandicbrennisteinn
  • Japanese硫黄
  • Lojbansliri
  • JavaneseWelirang
  • Georgianგოგირდი
  • KazakhКүкірт
  • Kannadaಗಂಧಕ
  • Korean
  • Kurdishkewkurd
  • KomiТэг
  • Latinsulphur
  • LuxembourgishSchwiefel
  • LimburgishSolfer
  • LigurianSorfo
  • LithuanianSiera
  • Latviansērs
  • Māoripungatara
  • MacedonianСулфур
  • Malayalamഗന്ധകം
  • Mongolianхүхэр
  • Marathiगंधक
  • Western MariСера
  • Malaybelerang
  • Burmeseကန့်
  • ErzyaПалыкандал
  • nahtlequiquiztlālli
  • Low GermanSwevel
  • Nepaliसल्फर
  • Norwegian Nynorsksvovel
  • Novialsulfre
  • Navajołeetsoii
  • Occitansofre
  • OsseticСондон
  • Punjabiਗੰਧਕ
  • Polishsiarka
  • Western Panjabiگندھک
  • Portugueseenxofre
  • QuechuaSalina
  • Romaniansulf
  • Russianсера
  • Sanskritगन्धकः
  • Siciliansùrfuru
  • Serbo-Croatiansumpor
  • Sinhalaගෙන්දගම්
  • Slovaksíra
  • Slovenianžveplo
  • Albaniansulfuri
  • Serbianсумпор
  • Saterland FrisianSwieuwel
  • SundaneseWalirang
  • Swedishsvavel
  • Swahilisulfuri
  • Tamilகந்தகம்
  • Teluguగంధకము
  • Thaiกำมะถัน
  • Tagalogasupre
  • TurkishKükürt
  • Uyghurگۈڭگۈرت
  • Ukrainianсірка
  • Urduگندھک
  • UzbekOltingugurt
  • VepsRik
  • Vietnameselưu huỳnh
  • West FlemishSulfer
  • WarayAsupre
  • Yiddishשוועבל
  • YorubaSulfur
  • Chinese
  • English (Canada)sulphur
  • English (United Kingdom)sulphur
  • Portuguese (Brazil)enxofre
  • Cebuanoasupri
  • KalmykКүкр
  • Newariगन्धक
  • BashkirКөкөрт
  • Odiaଗନ୍ଧକ
  • Piedmontesesorfo
  • German (Switzerland)Schwefel
  • Tatarкүкерт
  • Scotssulphur
  • Chinese (China)
  • Chinese (Hong Kong SAR China)
  • Cantonese
  • Literary Chinese
  • Belarusian (Taraskievica orthography)серка
  • Min Nan Chineseliû-hông
  • TajikСулфур
  • YakutСиэрэ
  • Somalisalfar
  • cdoliù-uòng
  • AromanianSulfu
  • Pashtoگوگړ
  • FaroeseSvávul
  • WalloonShoufe
  • Scottish Gaelicsulfar
  • Maltesekubrit
  • KyrgyzКүкүрт
  • ZhuangVuengzcungq
  • Gan Chinese
  • Minangkabaubalerang
  • Bhojpuriगंधक
  • Tibetanམུ་ཟི།
  • LombardSolfer
  • Jamaican Creole EnglishSolfa
  • olorikki
  • Chinese (Simplified)
  • Chinese (Macao SAR China)
  • Chinese (Malaysia)
  • Chinese (Singapore)
  • Chinese (Taiwan)
  • Paliसल्फर
  • Old Englishswefel
  • Lingua Franca Novasulfur
  • Tatar (Cyrillic)күкерт
  • kbpSʊfɩrɩ
  • XhosaI-sulphur
  • Mirandesealxofre
  • Wu Chinese
  • VolapükSulfin
  • RusynСулфур
  • KabyleTifrit (tanga)
  • hywԾծումբ
  • ExtremaduranAzufri
  • BavarianSchwefl
  • Sardiniansùrfuru
  • Venetianxolfo
  • Moroccan Arabicكبريت
  • Egyptian Arabicكبريت
  • Cornishsulfur
  • Bikolasupre
  • lldSolper
  • Manipuriꯁꯜꯐꯔ
  • Balineseurirang
  • Malay (Arabic)بليرڠ
  • Sindhiگندرف
  • blkကန်ꩻ
  • Korean (North Korea)류황
  • MalagasySolifara
  • dagChilibi
  • OromoWaalgaa