Vanadium

Vanadium (V)

Soft and ductile, bright white metal. Good resistance to corrosion by alkalis, sulphuric and hydrochloric acid. It oxidizes readily about 933K. There are two naturally occurring isotopes of vanadium, and 5 radioisotopes, V-49 having the longest half-life at 337 days. Vanadium has nuclear applications, the foil is used in cladding titanium to steel, and vanadium-gallium tape is used to produce a superconductive magnet. Originally discovered by Andres Manuel del Rio of Mexico City in 1801. His discovery went unheeded, however, and in 1820, Nils Gabriel Sefstron of Sweden rediscovered it. Metallic vanadium was isolated by Henry Enfield Roscoe in 1867. The name vanadium comes from Vanadis, a goddess of Scandinavian mythology. Silvery-white metallic transition element. Vanadium is essential to Ascidians. Rats and chickens are also known to require it. Metal powder is a fire hazard, and vanadium compounds should be considered highly toxic. May cause lung cancer if inhaled.
Atomic Number23
Atomic Weight50.9415
Mass Number51
Group5
Period4
Blockd
Protons23 p+
Neutrons28 n0
Electrons23 e-
Vanadium 1.jpg Animated Bohr Model of V (Vanadium) Enhanced Bohr Model of V (Vanadium) Bohr Model: V (Vanadium) Orbital Diagram of V (Vanadium)

Properties

Atomic Radius
135 pm
Molar Volume
Covalent Radius
134 pm
Metallic Radius
122 pm
Ionic Radius
79 pm
Crystal Radius
93 pm
Van der Waals Radius
207 pm
Density
Energy
Proton Affinity
859.4 kJ/mol
Electron Affinity
Ionization Energy
6.746187 eV/particle
Heat of Vaporization
460 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
17.5 kJ/mol
Heat of Formation
515.5 kJ/mol
Electrons
Electron Shells2, 8, 11, 2
Valence Electrons5
Electron Configuration[Ar] 3d3 4s2
Oxidation States-3, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Electronegativity
1.63
Electrophilicity
1.0623004980594741 eV/particle
Phases
PhaseSolid
Gas Phase
Boiling Point
3,680.15 K
Melting Point
2,183.15 K
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
Triple Point
Visual
Color
Silver
Appearanceblue-silver-grey metal
Refractive Index
Thermodynamic Properties
Thermal Conductivity
30.7 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion
0.0000084 1/K
Molar Heat Capacity
24.89 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.489 J/(g⋅K)
Heat Capacity Ratio (Adiabatic Index)
Electrical Properties
TypeConductor
Electrical Conductivity
5 MS/m
Electrical Resistivity
0.0000002 m Ω
Superconducting Point
5.4 K
Magnetism
Typeparamagnetic
Magnetic Susceptibility (Mass)
0.0000000628 m³/Kg
Magnetic Susceptibility (Molar)
0.000000003199 m³/mol
Magnetic Susceptibility (Volume)
0.0003837
Magnetic Ordering
Curie Point
Neel Point
Structure
Crystal StructureBody Centered Cubic (BCC)
Lattice Constant
3.02 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, π/2
Mechanical Properties
Hardness
7 MPa
Bulk Modulus
160 GPa
Shear Modulus
47 GPa
Young Modulus
128 GPa
Poisson Ratio
0.37
Speed of Sound
4,560 m/s
Classification
CategoryTransition metals, Transition metals
CAS GroupVA
IUPAC GroupVB
Glawe Number54
Mendeleev Number47
Pettifor Number54
Geochemical Classfirst series transition metal
Goldschmidt Classlitophile
Other
Gas Basicity
836.8 kJ/mol
Dipole Polarizability
87 ± 10 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
832 a₀
Allotropes
Neutron Cross Section
5.06
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.0033
Quantum Numbers4F3/2
Space Group229 (Im_3m)

Isotopes of Vanadium

Stable Isotopes2
Unstable Isotopes27
Radioactive Isotopes24

39V

Abundance
Relative Atomic Mass
39.02423 ± 0.000429 Da
Mass Number39
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year
Parity-

39V Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
p (proton emission)%

40V

Abundance
Relative Atomic Mass
40.013387 ± 0.000322 Da
Mass Number40
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year
Parity-

40V Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
p (proton emission)%

41V

Abundance
Relative Atomic Mass
41.000333 ± 0.000215 Da
Mass Number41
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year
Parity-

41V Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
p (proton emission)%

42V

Abundance
Relative Atomic Mass
41.99182 ± 0.00021 Da
Mass Number42
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year
Parity-

42V Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
p (proton emission)%

43V

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
42.980766 ± 0.000046 Da
Mass Number43
G-Factor
Half Life
79.3 ± 2.4 ms
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1987
Parity-

43V Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)2.5%

44V

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
43.974440977 ± 0.000007799 Da
Mass Number44
G-Factor
Half Life
111 ± 7 ms
Spin2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1971
Parity

44V Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+α (β+-delayed α emission)%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)%

45V

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
44.965768498 ± 0.000000926 Da
Mass Number45
G-Factor
Half Life
547 ± 6 ms
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1975
Parity-

45V Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

46V

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
45.960197389 ± 0.000000143 Da
Mass Number46
G-Factor
0
Half Life
422.62 ± 0.05 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1952
Parity+

46V Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

47V

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
46.954903558 ± 0.000000118 Da
Mass Number47
G-Factor
Half Life
32.6 ± 0.3 m
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1942
Parity-

47V Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

48V

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
47.9522509 ± 0.000001043 Da
Mass Number48
G-Factor
0.503 ± 0.00275
Half Life
15.9735 ± 0.0025 d
Spin4
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1937
Parity+

48V Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

49V

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
48.948510509 ± 0.000000884 Da
Mass Number49
G-Factor
1.2771428571429 ± 0.014285714285714
Half Life
330 ± 15 d
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1940
Parity-

49V Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

50V

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
0.25 ± 0.01
Relative Atomic Mass
49.947156681 ± 0.000000099 Da
Mass Number50
G-Factor
Half Life
271 ± 13 Py
Spin6
Quadrupole Moment
0.21 ± 0.04
Discovery Year1949
Parity+

50V Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β (β decay)%

51V

Abundance
99.75 ± 0.01
Relative Atomic Mass
50.943957664 ± 0.000000104 Da
Mass Number51
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
-0.052 ± 0.01
Discovery Year1924
Parity-

52V

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
51.944773636 ± 0.00000017 Da
Mass Number52
G-Factor
Half Life
3.743 ± 0.005 m
Spin3
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1934
Parity+

52V Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

53V

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
52.94433494 ± 0.000003331 Da
Mass Number53
G-Factor
Half Life
1.543 ± 0.014 m
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1960
Parity-

53V Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

54V

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
53.946432009 ± 0.000012001 Da
Mass Number54
G-Factor
Half Life
49.8 ± 0.5 s
Spin3
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1970
Parity+

54V Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

55V

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
54.947262 ± 0.000029 Da
Mass Number55
G-Factor
Half Life
6.54 ± 0.15 s
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1977
Parity-

55V Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

56V

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
55.950420082 ± 0.000188819 Da
Mass Number56
G-Factor
Half Life
216 ± 4 ms
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1980
Parity+

56V Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%

57V

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
56.952297 ± 0.000091 Da
Mass Number57
G-Factor
Half Life
350 ± 10 ms
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1980
Parity-

57V Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%

58V

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
57.956595985 ± 0.000102862 Da
Mass Number58
G-Factor
Half Life
191 ± 10 ms
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1980
Parity+

58V Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%

59V

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
58.959623343 ± 0.000147505 Da
Mass Number59
G-Factor
Half Life
95 ± 6 ms
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1985
Parity-

59V Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)3%

60V

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
59.964479215 ± 0.000195327 Da
Mass Number60
G-Factor
Half Life
122 ± 18 ms
Spin3
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1985
Parity+

60V Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

61V

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
60.967603529 ± 0.000252196 Da
Mass Number61
G-Factor
Half Life
48.2 ± 0.6 ms
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1992
Parity-

61V Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)14.5%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

62V

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
61.972932556 ± 0.000283723 Da
Mass Number62
G-Factor
Half Life
33.6 ± 2.3 ms
Spin3
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1997
Parity+

62V Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

63V

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
62.976661 ± 0.000365 Da
Mass Number63
G-Factor
Half Life
19.6 ± 0.9 ms
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1997
Parity-

63V Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)35%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

64V

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
63.98248 ± 0.000429 Da
Mass Number64
G-Factor
Half Life
15 ± 2 ms
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1997
Parity

64V Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

65V

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
64.986999 ± 0.000537 Da
Mass Number65
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2009
Parity-

65V Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

66V

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
65.993237 ± 0.000537 Da
Mass Number66
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2009
Parity

66V Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

67V

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
66.998128 ± 0.000644 Da
Mass Number67
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2013
Parity-

67V Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

History

Vanadium was originally discovered by Andrés Manuel del Río in 1801. In 1805, the French chemist Hippolyte Victor Collet-Descotils incorrectly declared that del Río's new element was only an impure sample of chromium. In 1831, the Swedish chemist Nils Gabriel Sefström rediscovered the element in a new oxide he found while working with iron ores. Later that same year, Friedrich Wöhler confirmed del Río's earlier work. Named after Scandinavian goddess, Vanadis

DiscoverersNils Sefström
Discovery LocationSweden
Discovery Year1830
Etymology (Name Origin)From Scandinavian goddess, Vanadis.
Pronunciationveh-NAY-di-em (English)
All vanadium compounds should be considered toxic
Vanadium is mined mostly in South Africa, north-western China, and eastern Russia

Uses

Vanadium is used as an additive in steel to strengthen and protect against corrosion. Titanium-aluminum-vanadium alloy is used in jet engines and for high-speed aircraft. Vanadium foil is used in cladding titanium to steel. Vanadium pentoxide is used in ceramics and as a catalyst for the production of sulfuric acid. It is mixed with other metals to make very strong and durable alloys. Vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) is used as a catalyst, dye and color-fixer.

Sources

Found in the minerals patronite (VS4), vanadinite [Pb5(VO4)3Cl], and carnotite [K2(UO2)2(VO4)2.3H2O]. Pure metal produced by heating with C and Cl to produce VCl3 which is heated with Mg in Ar atmosphere.

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
120 mg/kg
Abundance in Oceans
0.0025 mg/L
Abundance in Human Body
0.000003 %
Abundance in Meteor
0.0061 %
Abundance in Sun
0.00004 %
Abundance in Universe
0.0001 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s0.5744
2p3.9272
2s6.8186
3d14.0171
3p12.215
3s11.2907
4s18.0188