Vanadium (V)

Soft and ductile, bright white metal. Good resistance to corrosion by alkalis, sulphuric and hydrochloric acid. It oxidizes readily about 933K. There are two naturally occurring isotopes of vanadium, and 5 radioisotopes, V-49 having the longest half-life at 337 days. Vanadium has nuclear applications, the foil is used in cladding titanium to steel, and vanadium-gallium tape is used to produce a superconductive magnet. Originally discovered by Andres Manuel del Rio of Mexico City in 1801. His discovery went unheeded, however, and in 1820, Nils Gabriel Sefstron of Sweden rediscovered it. Metallic vanadium was isolated by Henry Enfield Roscoe in 1867. The name vanadium comes from Vanadis, a goddess of Scandinavian mythology. Silvery-white metallic transition element. Vanadium is essential to Ascidians. Rats and chickens are also known to require it. Metal powder is a fire hazard, and vanadium compounds should be considered highly toxic. May cause lung cancer if inhaled.
Atomic Number23
Atomic Weight50.9415
Mass Number51
Protons23 p+
Neutrons28 n0
Electrons23 e-
Vanadium 1.jpg Animated Bohr Model Enhanced Bohr Model Bohr Model Orbital Diagram


Atomic Radius
135 pm
Atomic Volume
Covalent Radius
134 pm
Metallic Radius
122 pm
Ionic Radius
79 pm
Crystal Radius
93 pm
Van der Waals radius
206.99999999999997 pm
Boiling Point
3,650 K
Melting Point
2,160 K
Electrons per shell2, 8, 11, 2
1.0623004980595 eV/particle
Proton Affinity
859.4 kJ/mol
Electron Affinity
Ionization Potential
6.746187 eV/particle
Heat of Vaporization
460 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
17.5 kJ/mol
Heat of Formation
515.5 kJ/mol
Molar Heat Capacity
24.89 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.489 J/(g⋅K)
Thermal Conductivity
30.7 W/(m K)
Gas Basicity
836.8 kJ/mol
Dipole Polarizability
87 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
832 a₀
Oxidation States-1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Crystal StructureBody Centered Cubic (BCC)
Lattice Constant
3.02 Å
Bulk Modulus
Electrical Resistivity
Electron Configuration[Ar] 3d3 4s2
Magnetic Ordering
Magnetic Susceptibility
Poisson Ratio
Shear Modulus
Young's Modulus
Alternate Names
Adiabatic Index
Electric Conductivity
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
Curie Point
Magnetic Susceptibility
Neel Point
Neutron Cross Section
Neutron Mass Absorption
Gas Phase
Quantum Numbers
Refractive Index
Space Group
Speed of Sound
Superconducting Point
Thermal Expansion
Valence Electrons
CategoryTransition metals, Transition metals
Glawe Number54
Mendeleev Number47
Pettifor Number54
Geochemical Classfirst series transition metal
Goldschmidt Classlitophile
Decay Mode
Abundance in Earth's crust
120 mg/kg
Abundance in Oceans
0.0025 mg/L
Abundance in Human Body
Abundance in Meteor
Abundance in Sun
Abundance in Universe0.0001%

Isotopes of Vanadium

Stable Isotopes
50V 51V
Unstable Isotopes
40V 41V 42V 43V 44V 45V 46V 47V 48V 49V 52V 53V 54V 55V 56V 57V 58V 59V 60V 61V 62V 63V 64V 65V


Vanadium was originally discovered by Andrés Manuel del Río in 1801. In 1805, the French chemist Hippolyte Victor Collet-Descotils incorrectly declared that del Río's new element was only an impure sample of chromium. In 1831, the Swedish chemist Nils Gabriel Sefström rediscovered the element in a new oxide he found while working with iron ores. Later that same year, Friedrich Wöhler confirmed del Río's earlier work. Named after Scandinavian goddess, Vanadis

DiscoverersNils Sefström
Discovery LocationSweden
Discovery Year1830
Name OriginFrom Scandinavian goddess, Vanadis.
All vanadium compounds should be considered toxic
Vanadium is mined mostly in South Africa, north-western China, and eastern Russia


Vanadium is used as an additive in steel to strengthen and protect against corrosion. Titanium-aluminum-vanadium alloy is used in jet engines and for high-speed aircraft. Vanadium foil is used in cladding titanium to steel. Vanadium pentoxide is used in ceramics and as a catalyst for the production of sulfuric acid. It is mixed with other metals to make very strong and durable alloys. Vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) is used as a catalyst, dye and color-fixer.


Found in the minerals patronite (VS4), vanadinite [Pb5(VO4)3Cl], and carnotite [K2(UO2)2(VO4)2.3H2O]. Pure metal produced by heating with C and Cl to produce VCl3 which is heated with Mg in Ar atmosphere.