Ytterbium

Ytterbium (Yb)

Silvery metallic element of the lanthanoids. Seven natural isotopes and ten artificial isotopes are known. Used in certain steels. Discovered by J.D.G. Marignac in 1878.
Atomic Number70
Atomic Weight173.045
Mass Number174
Group
Period6
Blockf
Protons70 p+
Neutrons104 n0
Electrons70 e-
Ytterbium element.jpg Animated Bohr Model Enhanced Bohr Model Bohr Model Orbital Diagram

Properties

Atomic Radius
175 pm
Atomic Volume
Covalent Radius
170 pm
Metallic Radius
Ionic Radius
102 pm
Crystal Radius
115.99999999999999 pm
Van der Waals radius
225.99999999999997 pm
Density
6.9 g/cm³
Boiling Point
1,466 K
Melting Point
1,097 K
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 32, 8, 2
Electronegativity
Electrophilicity
0.7743018767771 eV/particle
Proton Affinity
Electron Affinity
Ionization Potential
6.25416 eV/particle
Heat of Vaporization
159 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
3.35 kJ/mol
Heat of Formation
155.6 kJ/mol
Molar Heat Capacity
26.74 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.155 J/(g⋅K)
Thermal Conductivity
Gas Basicity
Dipole Polarizability
139 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
Oxidation States2, 3
Color
Silver
Crystal StructureFace Centered Cubic (FCC)
Lattice Constant
5.49 Å
Bulk Modulus
Electrical Resistivity
Electron Configuration[Xe] 4f14 6s2
Magnetic Ordering
Magnetic Susceptibility
PhaseSolid
Poisson Ratio
Shear Modulus
Young's Modulus
Allotropes
Alternate Names
Adiabatic Index
Appearance
Electric Conductivity
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
Curie Point
Electrical
Hardness
Magnetic Susceptibility
Magnetic
Neel Point
Neutron Cross Section
Neutron Mass Absorption
Gas Phase
Quantum Numbers
Refractive Index
Space Group
Speed of Sound
Superconducting Point
Thermal Expansion
Valence Electrons
Classification
CategoryLanthanides, Lanthanides
CAS Group
IUPAC Group
Glawe Number18
Mendeleev Number39
Pettifor Number17
Geochemical Classrare earth & related
Goldschmidt Classlitophile
Radioactivity
RadioactiveNo
Decay Mode
Half-Life
Lifetime
Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
3.2 mg/kg
Abundance in Oceans
0.00000082 mg/L
Abundance in Human Body
Abundance in Meteor
Abundance in Sun
Abundance in Universe2×10-7%

Isotopes of Ytterbium

Stable Isotopes
168Yb 170Yb 171Yb 172Yb 173Yb 174Yb 176Yb
Unstable Isotopes
148Yb 149Yb 150Yb 151Yb 152Yb 153Yb 154Yb 155Yb 156Yb 157Yb 158Yb 159Yb 160Yb 161Yb 162Yb 163Yb 164Yb 165Yb 166Yb 167Yb 169Yb 175Yb 177Yb 178Yb 179Yb 180Yb 181Yb

History

Ytterbium was discovered by the Swiss chemist Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac in the year 1878. In 1907, in Paris, George Urbain separated ytterbia into two constituents. Ytterbium metal was first made in 1937 by Klemm and Bonner by heating ytterbium chloride and potassium together. A relatively pure sample of the metal was obtained only in 1953. Ytterbium was named after Ytterby, a town in Sweden

DiscoverersJean de Marignac
Discovery LocationSwitzerland
Discovery Year1878
Name OriginNamed for the Swedish village of Ytterby.
Ytterbium is considered to be moderately toxic
Ytterbium is recovered commercially from monazite sand

Uses

Ytterbium fiber laser amplifiers are used in marking and engraving. Ytterbium compounds are also used as catalysts in the organic chemical industry. Ytterbium can be used as a dopant to help improve the grain refinement, strength, and other mechanical properties of stainless steel. Used in metallurgical and chemical experiments.

Sources

Found in minerals such as yttria, monazite, gadolinite, and xenotime. Monazite is often 50% rare earth by weight and typically 0.03% ytterbium.