Zinc

Zinc (Zn)

Blue-white metallic element. Occurs in multiple compounds naturally. Five stable isotopes are six radioactive isotopes have been found. Chemically a reactive metal, combines with oxygen and other non-metals, reacts with dilute acids to release hydrogen.
Atomic Number30
Atomic Weight65.38
Mass Number64
Group12
Period4
Blockd
Protons30 p+
Neutrons34 n0
Electrons30 e-
Zinc fragment sublimed and 1cm3 cube.jpg Animated Bohr Model Enhanced Bohr Model Bohr Model Orbital Diagram

Properties

Atomic Radius
135 pm
Atomic Volume
Covalent Radius
118 pm
Metallic Radius
121 pm
Ionic Radius
60 pm
Crystal Radius
74 pm
Van der Waals radius
200.99999999999997 pm
Density
7.134 g/cm³
Boiling Point
1,180 K
Melting Point
692.73 K
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 2
Electronegativity
1.65
Electrophilicity
Proton Affinity
608.6 kJ/mol
Electron Affinity
Ionization Potential
9.394199 eV/particle
Heat of Vaporization
114.8 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
7.28 kJ/mol
Heat of Formation
130.4 kJ/mol
Molar Heat Capacity
25.39 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.388 J/(g⋅K)
Thermal Conductivity
Gas Basicity
586 kJ/mol
Dipole Polarizability
38.67 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
284 a₀
Oxidation States1, 2
Color
Slate Gray
Crystal StructureSimple Hexagonal (HEX)
Lattice Constant
2.66 Å
Bulk Modulus
Electrical Resistivity
Electron Configuration[Ar] 3d10 4s2
Magnetic Ordering
Magnetic Susceptibility
PhaseSolid
Poisson Ratio
Shear Modulus
Young's Modulus
Allotropes
Alternate Names
Adiabatic Index
Appearance
Electric Conductivity
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
Curie Point
Electrical
Hardness
Magnetic Susceptibility
Magnetic
Neel Point
Neutron Cross Section
Neutron Mass Absorption
Gas Phase
Quantum Numbers
Refractive Index
Space Group
Speed of Sound
Superconducting Point
Thermal Expansion
Valence Electrons
Classification
CategoryTransition metals, Transition metals
CAS GroupIIB
IUPAC GroupIIB
Glawe Number74
Mendeleev Number77
Pettifor Number76
Geochemical Classfirst series transition metal
Goldschmidt Classchalcophile
Radioactivity
RadioactiveNo
Decay Mode
Half-Life
Lifetime
Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
Abundance in Oceans
0.0049 mg/L
Abundance in Human Body
Abundance in Meteor
Abundance in Sun
Abundance in Universe0.00003%

Isotopes of Zinc

Stable Isotopes
64Zn 66Zn 67Zn 68Zn 70Zn
Unstable Isotopes
54Zn 55Zn 56Zn 57Zn 58Zn 59Zn 60Zn 61Zn 62Zn 63Zn 65Zn 69Zn 71Zn 72Zn 73Zn 74Zn 75Zn 76Zn 77Zn 78Zn 79Zn 80Zn 81Zn 82Zn 83Zn

History

Metallic zinc was produced in the 13th century A.D. India by reducing calamine with organic substances such as wool. The metal was rediscovered in Europe by Andreas Sigismund Marggraf in 1746. He heated a mixture of calamine ore and carbon in a closed vessel without copper to produce the metal. From the German word Zink, of obscure origin

DiscoverersKnown to the ancients.
Discovery Location
Discovery Year
Name OriginGerman: zink (German for tin).
Zinc is not considered to be particularly toxic
Zinc is referred to in nonscientific contexts as spelter

Uses

Because of its corrosion resistance, zinc is often plated to other metals in a process called galvanization. Zinc is an essential trace element for animals and plants. Large quantities of zinc are used to produce die castings, which are used extensively by the automotive, electrical, and hardware industries. Used to coat other metal (galvanizing) to protect them from rusting. Also used in alloys such as brass, bronze, nickel. Also in solder, cosmetics and pigments.

Sources

Found in the minerals zinc blende (sphalerite) (ZnS), calamine, franklinite, smithsonite (ZnCO3), willemite, and zincite (ZnO).