性质

CAS编号7440-47-3
PubChem CID23976
原子半径128
原子体积7.23
相对原子质量51.996
d
沸点2,671
体积模量
分类过渡金属
晶体结构体心立方
颜色银色
共价半径139
密度7.15
电阻率
电子排布[Ar] 3d5 4s1
每层电子排布2, 8, 13, 1
电负性1.66
电子24
6
熔解热20.5
汽化热339
电离能6.766
磁有序化
磁化率
同位素质量51.996
质量数24
熔点1,907
名称
个中子28
原子序数52
氧化态-2, -1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
周期4
状态固体
泊松比
个质子24
剪切模量
比热容0.449
符号Cr
热导率0.937
范德华半径
杨氏模量 (弹性模量)
相对丰度
地壳丰度0.014%
宇宙丰度0.0015%
Cr 鉻 24 51.9961 6 4 d 24 1857.0 2672.0 [Ar] 3d5 4s1 2 8 13 1 7.19 0.014% Silver Cubic: Body centered 1.7 1.65 {"1":"652.9","2":"1590.6","3":"2987","4":"4743","5":"6702","6":"8744.9","7":"15455","8":"17820","9":"20190","10":"23580","11":"26130","12":"28750","13":"34230","14":"37066","15":"97510","16":"105800","17":"114300","18":"125300","19":"134700","20":"144300","21":"157700","22":"166090","23":"721870","24":"761733"} 653 64.3 127 +3,2,6 1.3 7.23 20.0 339.5 0.449 93.7 393.K 0 Solid, Antiferromagnetic, Conductor, TransitionMetal, Metal, Stable, Natural KROH-mi-em Very hard, crystalline, steel-gray metal. The pure metal has a blue-white color. It is hard, brittle and corrsion-resistant at normal temperatures. Used to make stainless steel. It gives the color to rubies and emeralds. Iron-nickel-chromium alloys in various percentages yield an incredible variety of the most important metals in modern technology. Chromite [Fe,Mg(CrO4)] is its most important mineral. Produced commercially by heating its ore in the presence of silicon or aluminium. lzRb4zmGvNU Chromium
1800年,汉弗莱认为二氧化硅是一种化合物而非一种元素,但是在1811年,盖 吕萨克和路易斯 牙科 莱纳德几乎就通过钾和四氟化硅的方法制备出了硅

1824年,琼斯 雅可比 贝采利乌斯用同样的方法制备出了无定形硅

1854年,亨利 戴维勒首先制备出了晶体硅,第二种同素异形体 拉丁文“打火石” 24 1797 Louis-Nicholas Vauquelin France From the Greek word "chroma" meaning "colour", named for the many coloured compounds known for chromium.

矽的同位素

Standard Atomic Weight

51.9961(6)

稳定的同位素

50Cr 52Cr 53Cr 54Cr

不稳定的同位素

42Cr 43Cr 44Cr 45Cr 46Cr 47Cr 48Cr 49Cr 51Cr 55Cr 56Cr 57Cr 58Cr 59Cr 60Cr 61Cr 62Cr 63Cr 64Cr 65Cr 66Cr 67Cr

吸入细小的硅尘会导致慢性的呼吸问题
硅在低温时表现出独特的延展性
硅在沙子,贝壳,水泥和砖块中都是有用的结构材料

硅在硅酸盐形式下被用来制备釉质,陶瓷等产品

二氧化硅,沙子是玻璃的原材料

单晶硅片是现代电子设备的基础

碳化硅是有用的磨料