性质

CAS编号7440-50-8
PubChem CID23978
原子半径128
原子体积7.1
相对原子质量63.546
d
沸点2,562
体积模量
分类过渡金属
晶体结构面心立方
颜色
共价半径132
密度8.96
电阻率
电子排布[Ar] 3d10 4s1
每层电子排布2, 8, 18, 1
电负性1.9
电子29
11
熔解热13.1
汽化热300
电离能7.726
磁有序化
磁化率
同位素质量63.546
质量数29
熔点1,084.6
名称
个中子35
原子序数64
氧化态1, 2, 3, 4
周期4
状态固体
泊松比
个质子29
剪切模量
比热容0.385
符号Cu
热导率4.01
范德华半径
杨氏模量 (弹性模量)
相对丰度
地壳丰度0.0068%
宇宙丰度6×10-6%
Cu 銅 29 63.546 11 4 d 29 1083.0 2567.0 [Ar] 3d10 4s1 2 8 18 1 8.96 0.0068% Copper Cubic: Face centered 1.9 1.85 {"1":"745.5","2":"1957.9","3":"3555","4":"5536","5":"7700","6":"9900","7":"13400","8":"16000","9":"19200","10":"22400","11":"25600","12":"35600","13":"38700","14":"42000","15":"46700","16":"50200","17":"53700","18":"61100","19":"64702","20":"163700","21":"174100","22":"184900","23":"198800","24":"210500","25":"222700","26":"239100","27":"249660","28":"1067358","29":"1116105"} 746 118.4 138 +2,1 1.28 7.1 13.14 300.5 0.385 401.0 0 Solid, Diamagnetic, Conductor, TransitionMetal, Metal, Stable, Natural KOP-er Malleable, ductile, reddish-brown metal. Most often used as an electrical conductor. Also used in the manufacture of water pipes. Its alloys are used in jewelry and for coins. Pure copper occurs rarely in nature. Usually found in sulfides as in chalcopyrite (CuFeS2), coveline (CuS), chalcosine (Cu2S) or oxides like cuprite (Cu2O). sWvp_Z2kfYs Copper
钾元素的名称来源于德文和斯堪的纳维亚半岛地区的旧式名称

金属架第一次被分离出来是1807年的汉弗莱 戴维,从腐蚀过的壶垢中用电堆电解法得到的

钾是第一个用电解法得到的元素单质 英文“钾盐草碱” 29 From the Latin word "cuprum" meaning the island of "Cyprus"

鉀的同位素

Standard Atomic Weight

63.546(3)

稳定的同位素

63Cu 65Cu

不稳定的同位素

52Cu 53Cu 54Cu 55Cu 56Cu 57Cu 58Cu 59Cu 60Cu 61Cu 62Cu 64Cu 66Cu 67Cu 68Cu 69Cu 70Cu 71Cu 72Cu 73Cu 74Cu 75Cu 76Cu 77Cu 78Cu 79Cu 80Cu

使用钾时必须保护好皮肤和眼睛
食品中钾含量过少会导致胃酸缺乏综合症
钾盐草碱因其肥料作用有大量的需求

土壤中的钾元素是一种植物生长需要的重要的组分

硝酸钾是一种主要的枪药的气爆药

氢氧化钾是生产软肥皂和碱性电池电解液