CAS Number7439-89-6
PubChem CID23925
Atomic Radius126
Atomic Volume7.1
Atomic Weight55.845
Boiling Point2,861
Bulk Modulus
CategoryTransition metals
Crystal StructureBody Centered Cubic
Covalent Radius132
Electrical Resistivity
Electron Configuration[Ar] 3d6 4s2
Electrons per shell2, 8, 14, 2
Heat of Fusion13.8
Heat of Vaporization347
Ionization Potential7.902
Magnetic Ordering
Magnetic Susceptibility
Mass Number26
Melting Point1,538
Atomic Number56
Oxidation States-2, -1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
Poisson Ratio
Shear Modulus
Specific Heat Capacity0.449
Thermal Conductivity0.802
Van der Waals radius
Young's Modulus
Abundance in Earth's crust6.3%
Abundance in Universe0.11%
Fe Iron 26 55.845 8 4 d 26 1535.0 2750.0 [Ar] 4s2 3d6 2 8 14 2 7.86 6.3% Gray Cubic: Body centered 1.8 1.80 {"1":"762.5","2":"1561.9","3":"2957","4":"5290","5":"7240","6":"9560","7":"12060","8":"14580","9":"22540","10":"25290","11":"28000","12":"31920","13":"34830","14":"37840","15":"44100","16":"47206","17":"122200","18":"131000","19":"140500","20":"152600","21":"163000","22":"173600","23":"188100","24":"195200","25":"851800","26":"895161"} 763 15.7 125 +3,2 1.26 7.1 13.8 349.5 0.449 80.2 0 Solid, Ferromagnetic, Conductor, TransitionMetal, Metal, Stable, Natural EYE-ern Malleable, ductile, silvery-white metal. Fourth most abundant element in the earth's crust (56,300 ppm). Ninth most abundant element in the universe. Used in steel and other alloys. Essential for humans. It is the chief constituent of hemoglobin which carries oxygen in blood vessels. Its oxides are used in magnetic tapes and disks. Obtained from iron ores. Pure metal produced in blast furnaces by layering limestone, coke and iron ore and forcing hot gasses into the bottom. This heats the coke red hot and the iron is reduced from its oxides and liquified where it flows to the bottom 01z4tnBbsL0 Iron
By the 3rd century, the Chinese discovered that sulfur could be extracted from pyrite.

Indian alchemists wrote extensively about the use of sulfur in alchemical operations with mercury, from the eighth century AD onwards.

In 1777, Antoine Lavoisier helped convince the scientific community that sulfur was an element, not a compound. Known to the ancients; referred to in Genesis as brimstone 26 From the Anglo-Saxon word "iron" or "iren" (the origin of the symbol Fe comes from the Latin word "ferrum" meaning "iron").

Isotopes of Sulfur

Standard Atomic Weight


Stable Isotopes

54Fe 56Fe 57Fe 58Fe

Unstable Isotopes

45Fe 46Fe 47Fe 48Fe 49Fe 50Fe 51Fe 52Fe 53Fe 55Fe 59Fe 60Fe 61Fe 62Fe 63Fe 64Fe 65Fe 66Fe 67Fe 68Fe 69Fe 70Fe 71Fe 72Fe

Elemental sulfur is considered to be of low toxicity
Penicillin is a natural, sulfur-based antibiotic
Sulfur's main commercial use is as a reactant in the production of sulfuric acid.

Sulfur is a component of black gunpowder, and is used in the vulcanization of natural rubber and a fungicide.

It is used to make sulfite paper and other papers, to fumigate fumigant, and to bleach dried fruits.

It is also used extensively in making phosphatic fertilizers.