CAS Number7440-56-4
PubChem CID6326954
Atomic Radius122
Atomic Volume13.6
Atomic Weight72.63
Boiling Point2,833
Bulk Modulus
Crystal StructureFace Centered Cubic
Covalent Radius122
Electrical Resistivity
Electron Configuration[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 4
Heat of Fusion31.8
Heat of Vaporization334
Ionization Potential7.899
Magnetic Ordering
Magnetic Susceptibility
Mass Number32
Melting Point938.25
Atomic Number73
Oxidation States-4, 1, 2, 3, 4
Poisson Ratio
Shear Modulus
Specific Heat Capacity0.32
Thermal Conductivity0.599
Van der Waals radius
Young's Modulus
Abundance in Earth's crust0.00014%
Abundance in Universe0.00002%
Ge Germanium 32 72.64 14 4 p 32 947.4 2830.0 [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2 2 8 18 4 5.32 0.00014% Gray Cubic: Face centered 2.0 1.994 {"1":"762","2":"1537.5","3":"3302.1","4":"4411","5":"9020"} 762 119 122 +4,2 1.37 13.6 31.8 334.3 0.32 59.9 0 Solid, Diamagnetic, Semiconductor, Stable, Natural, Metalloid jer-MAY-ni-em Grayish-white metal. Widely used in semiconductors. It is a good semiconductor when combined with tiny amounts of phosphorus, arsenic, gallium, and antimony. Obtained from refining copper, zinc and lead. osrKWVknkgs Germanium
In 1879, Lars Fredrik Nilson and his team detected scandium in the minerals euxenite and gadolinite.

Nilson prepared 2 grams of scandium oxide of high purity.

Per Teodor Cleve showed that scandium had properties similar to those predicted by Mendeleev for eka-boron.

Metallic scandium was first prepared in 1937 by Fischer and his colleagues. From the Latin word Scandia, Scandinavia 32 1886 Clemens Winkler Germany From the Latin word "Germania" meaning "Germany"

Isotopes of Scandium

Standard Atomic Weight


Stable Isotopes

70Ge 72Ge 73Ge 74Ge 76Ge

Unstable Isotopes

58Ge 59Ge 60Ge 61Ge 62Ge 63Ge 64Ge 65Ge 66Ge 67Ge 68Ge 69Ge 71Ge 75Ge 77Ge 78Ge 79Ge 80Ge 81Ge 82Ge 83Ge 84Ge 85Ge 86Ge 87Ge 88Ge 89Ge

Scandium is considered to be of low toxicity
The stable form of scandium is created in supernovas via the r-process
Scandium is used in sports equipment such as golf iron shafts, baseball bats, bicycle frames and fishing rods.

Scandium iodide, along with sodium iodide, when added to a modified form of mercury-vapor lamp, produces a form of metal halide lamp.

The radioactive isotope 46Sc is used in oil refineries as a tracing agent.