Properties

CAS Number7440-56-4
PubChem CID6326954
Atomic Radius১২২
Atomic Volume১৩.৬
Atomic Weight৭২.৬৩
Blockp
Boiling Point২,৮৩৩
Bulk Modulus
CategoryMetalloids
Crystal StructureFace Centered Cubic
ColorGray
Covalent Radius১২২
Density৫.৩২৩
Electrical Resistivity
Electron Configuration[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 4
Electronegativity২.০১
Electrons32
Group14
Heat of Fusion৩১.৮
Heat of Vaporization৩৩৪
Ionization Potential৭.৮৯৯
Magnetic Ordering
Magnetic Susceptibility
Mass৭২.৬৩
Mass Number32
Melting Point৯৩৮.২৫
Nameজার্মেনিয়াম
Neutrons41
Atomic Number73
Oxidation States-4, 1, 2, 3, 4
Period4
PhaseSolid
Poisson Ratio
Protons32
Shear Modulus
Specific Heat Capacity০.৩২
SymbolGe
Thermal Conductivity০.৫৯৯
Van der Waals radius
Young's Modulus
Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust0.00014%
Abundance in Universe0.00002%
Ge জার্মেনিয়াম 32 72.64 14 4 p 32 947.4 2830.0 [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2 2 8 18 4 5.32 0.00014% Gray Cubic: Face centered 2.0 1.994 {"1":"762","2":"1537.5","3":"3302.1","4":"4411","5":"9020"} 762 119 122 +4,2 1.37 13.6 31.8 334.3 0.32 59.9 0 Solid, Diamagnetic, Semiconductor, Stable, Natural, Metalloid jer-MAY-ni-em Grayish-white metal. Widely used in semiconductors. It is a good semiconductor when combined with tiny amounts of phosphorus, arsenic, gallium, and antimony. Obtained from refining copper, zinc and lead. osrKWVknkgs Germanium
In 1879, Lars Fredrik Nilson and his team detected scandium in the minerals euxenite and gadolinite.

Nilson prepared 2 grams of scandium oxide of high purity.

Per Teodor Cleve showed that scandium had properties similar to those predicted by Mendeleev for eka-boron.

Metallic scandium was first prepared in 1937 by Fischer and his colleagues. From the Latin word Scandia, Scandinavia 32 1886 Clemens Winkler Germany From the Latin word "Germania" meaning "Germany"

Isotopes of Scandium

Standard Atomic Weight

72.630(8)

Stable Isotopes

70Ge 72Ge 73Ge 74Ge 76Ge

Unstable Isotopes

58Ge 59Ge 60Ge 61Ge 62Ge 63Ge 64Ge 65Ge 66Ge 67Ge 68Ge 69Ge 71Ge 75Ge 77Ge 78Ge 79Ge 80Ge 81Ge 82Ge 83Ge 84Ge 85Ge 86Ge 87Ge 88Ge 89Ge

Scandium is considered to be of low toxicity
The stable form of scandium is created in supernovas via the r-process
Scandium is used in sports equipment such as golf iron shafts, baseball bats, bicycle frames and fishing rods.

Scandium iodide, along with sodium iodide, when added to a modified form of mercury-vapor lamp, produces a form of metal halide lamp.

The radioactive isotope 46Sc is used in oil refineries as a tracing agent.