CAS Number7782-49-2
PubChem CID6326970
Atomic Radius120
Atomic Volume16.45
Atomic Weight78.96
Boiling Point685
Bulk Modulus
CategoryOther nonmetals
Crystal StructureSimple Monoclinic
Covalent Radius120
Electrical Resistivity
Electron Configuration[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p4
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 6
Heat of Fusion5.4
Heat of Vaporization26
Ionization Potential9.752
Magnetic Ordering
Magnetic Susceptibility
Mass Number34
Melting Point221
Atomic Number79
Oxidation States-2, 2, 4, 6
Poisson Ratio
Shear Modulus
Specific Heat Capacity0.321
Thermal Conductivity0.02
Van der Waals radius
Young's Modulus
Abundance in Earth's crust5×10-6%
Abundance in Universe3×10-6%
Se Selenium 34 78.96 16 4 p 34 217.0 685.0 [Ar] 4s2 3d10 4p4 2 8 18 6 4.79 5E-6% Gray Hexagonal 2.6 2.424 {"1":"941.0","2":"2045","3":"2973.7","4":"4144","5":"6590","6":"7880","7":"14990"} 941 195 116 +4,-2,+6 1.4 16.5 5.54 26.32 0.32 2.04 0 Solid, Diamagnetic, Stable, Natural, Nonmetal si-LEE-ni-em Soft metalloid similar to sulfur. Ranges from gray metallic to red glassy appearance. Light causes it to conduct electricity more easily. It is used in photoelectric cells, TV cameras, xerography machines and as a semiconductor in solar batteries and rectifiers. Also colors glass red. Obtained from lead, copper and nickel refining. Conducts electricity when struck by light. IHrUtKjcAFE Selenium
Vanadium was originally discovered by Andrés Manuel del Río in 1801.

In 1805, the French chemist Hippolyte Victor Collet-Descotils incorrectly declared that del Río's new element was only an impure sample of chromium.

In 1831, the Swedish chemist Nils Gabriel Sefström rediscovered the element in a new oxide he found while working with iron ores.

Later that same year, Friedrich Wöhler confirmed del Río's earlier work. Named after Scandinavian goddess, Vanadis 34 1817 Jöns Berzelius Sweden From the Greek word "selene" meaning "moon"

Isotopes of Vanadium

Standard Atomic Weight


Stable Isotopes

74Se 76Se 77Se 78Se 80Se 82Se

Unstable Isotopes

65Se 66Se 67Se 68Se 69Se 70Se 71Se 72Se 73Se 75Se 79Se 81Se 83Se 84Se 85Se 86Se 87Se 88Se 89Se 90Se 91Se 92Se 93Se 94Se

All vanadium compounds should be considered toxic
Vanadium is mined mostly in South Africa, north-western China, and eastern Russia
Vanadium is used as an additive in steel to strengthen and protect against corrosion.

Titanium-aluminum-vanadium alloy is used in jet engines and for high-speed aircraft.

Vanadium foil is used in cladding titanium to steel.

Vanadium pentoxide is used in ceramics and as a catalyst for the production of sulfuric acid.