Beryllium

Beryllium (Be)

Grey metallic element of group 2 of the periodic table. Is toxic and can cause severe lung diseases and dermatitis. Shows high covalent character. It was isolated independently by F. Wohler and A.A. Bussy in 1828.
Atomic Number4
Atomic Weight9.0121831
Mass Number9
Group2
Period2
Blocks
Protons4 p+
Neutrons5 n0
Electrons4 e-
Beryllium nuggets 2.jpg Electron shell de 004 Beryllium.svg Animated Bohr Model Enhanced Bohr Model Bohr Model Orbital Diagram

Properties

Atomic Radius
105 pm
Atomic Volume
Covalent Radius
102 pm
Metallic Radius
89 pm
Ionic Radius
16 pm
Crystal Radius
30 pm
Van der Waals radius
153 pm
Density
1.85 g/cm³
Boiling Point
3,243 K
Melting Point
1,551 K
Electrons per shell2, 2
Electronegativity
1.57
Electrophilicity
0.5110145863657 eV/particle
Proton Affinity
Electron Affinity
Ionization Potential
9.322699 eV/particle
Heat of Vaporization
309 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
12.21 kJ/mol
Heat of Formation
324 kJ/mol
Molar Heat Capacity
16.443 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
1.825 J/(g⋅K)
Thermal Conductivity
Gas Basicity
Dipole Polarizability
37.74 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
227 a₀
Oxidation States1, 2
Color
Slate Gray
Crystal StructureSimple Hexagonal (HEX)
Lattice Constant
2.29 Å
Bulk Modulus
Electrical Resistivity
Electron Configuration[He] 2s2
Magnetic Ordering
Magnetic Susceptibility
PhaseSolid
Poisson Ratio
Shear Modulus
Young's Modulus
Allotropes
Alternate Names
Adiabatic Index
Appearance
Electric Conductivity
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
Curie Point
Electrical
Hardness
Magnetic Susceptibility
Magnetic
Neel Point
Neutron Cross Section
Neutron Mass Absorption
Gas Phase
Quantum Numbers
Refractive Index
Space Group
Speed of Sound
Superconducting Point
Thermal Expansion
Valence Electrons
Classification
CategoryAlkaline earth metals, Alkaline earth metals
CAS GroupIIA
IUPAC GroupIIA
Glawe Number77
Mendeleev Number75
Pettifor Number77
Geochemical Classalkaline earth metal
Goldschmidt Classlitophile
Radioactivity
RadioactiveNo
Decay Mode
Half-Life
Lifetime
Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
2.8 mg/kg
Abundance in Oceans
0.0000056 mg/L
Abundance in Human Body
Abundance in Meteor
Abundance in Sun
Abundance in Universe1×10-7%

Isotopes of Beryllium

Stable Isotopes
9Be
Unstable Isotopes
5Be 6Be 7Be 8Be 10Be 11Be 12Be 13Be 14Be 15Be 16Be

History

Louis-Nicolas Vauquelin discovered beryllium in the oxide form in both beryl and emeralds in 1798. Friedrich Wöhler and Antoine Bussy independently isolated beryllium in 1828 by the chemical reaction of metallic potassium with beryllium chloride. The first commercially-successful process for producing beryllium was developed in 1932 by Alfred Stock and Hans Goldschmidt. From the Greek word beryllos, beryl

DiscoverersFredrich Wöhler, A.A.Bussy
Discovery LocationGermany/France
Discovery Year1798
Name OriginGreek: beryllos, "beryl" (a mineral).
Beryllium and its salts are toxic and should be handled with the greatest of care
Emerald is a naturally occurring compound of beryllium

Uses

Beryllium is used in nuclear reactors as a reflector or moderator. Beryllium metal is used for lightweight structural components in the defense and aerospace industries in high-speed aircraft, guided missiles, space vehicles and satellites. Unlike most metals, beryllium is virtually transparent to x-rays and hence it is used in radiation windows for x-ray tubes. Its ability to absorb large amounts of heat makes it useful in spacecraft, missiles, aircraft, etc. Emeralds are beryl crystals with chromium traces giving them their green color.

Sources

Found mostly in minerals like beryl [AlBe3(Si6O18)] and chrysoberyl (Al2BeO4). Pure beryllium is obtained by chemically reducing beryl mineral. Also by electrolysis of beryllium chloride.