Lithium

Lithium (Li)

Socket silvery metal. First member of group 1 of the periodic table. Lithium salts are used in psychomedicine.
Atomic Number3
Atomic Weight6.94
Mass Number7
Group1
Period2
Blocks
Protons3 p+
Neutrons4 n0
Electrons3 e-
Lithium paraffin.jpg Animated Bohr Model of Li (Lithium) Enhanced Bohr Model of Li (Lithium) Bohr Model: Li (Lithium) Orbital Diagram of Li (Lithium)

Properties

Atomic Radius
145 pm
Molar Volume
Covalent Radius
133 pm
Metallic Radius
123 pm
Ionic Radius
59 pm
Crystal Radius
73 pm
Van der Waals Radius
182 pm
Density
0.534 g/cm³
Energy
Proton Affinity
Electron Affinity
0.618049 eV/particle
Ionization Energy
5.391714761 eV/particle
Heat of Vaporization
148 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
2.89 kJ/mol
Heat of Formation
159.3 kJ/mol
Electrons
Electron Shells2, 1
Valence Electrons1
Electron Configuration[He] 2s1
Oxidation States0, 1
Electronegativity
0.98
Electrophilicity
0.9457422835847783 eV/particle
Phases
PhaseSolid
Gas Phase
Boiling Point
1,615.15 K
Melting Point
453.65 K
Critical Pressure
67 MPa
Critical Temperature
3,223.15 K
Triple Point
Visual
Color
Silver
Appearancesilvery-white
Refractive Index
Thermodynamic Properties
Thermal Conductivity
84.8 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion
0.000046 1/K
Molar Heat Capacity
24.86 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
3.582 J/(g⋅K)
Heat Capacity Ratio (Adiabatic Index)
Electrical Properties
TypeConductor
Electrical Conductivity
11 MS/m
Electrical Resistivity
0.00000009400000000002 m Ω
Superconducting Point
Magnetism
Typeparamagnetic
Magnetic Susceptibility (Mass)
0.0000000256 m³/Kg
Magnetic Susceptibility (Molar)
0.000000000178 m³/mol
Magnetic Susceptibility (Volume)
0.0000137
Magnetic Ordering
Curie Point
Neel Point
Structure
Crystal StructureBody Centered Cubic (BCC)
Lattice Constant
3.49 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, π/2
Mechanical Properties
Hardness
0.6 MPa
Bulk Modulus
11 GPa
Shear Modulus
4.2 GPa
Young Modulus
4.9 GPa
Poisson Ratio
Speed of Sound
6,000 m/s
Classification
CategoryAlkali metals, Alkali metals
CAS GroupIA
IUPAC GroupIA
Glawe Number12
Mendeleev Number1
Pettifor Number12
Geochemical Classalkali metal
Goldschmidt Classlitophile
Other
Gas Basicity
Dipole Polarizability
164.1125 ± 0.0005 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
1,392 a₀
Allotropes
Neutron Cross Section
71
Neutron Mass Absorption
Quantum Numbers2S1/2
Space Group229 (Im_3m)

Isotopes of Lithium

Stable Isotopes2
Unstable Isotopes9
Radioactive Isotopes8

3Li

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
3.030775 ± 0.002147 Da
Mass Number3
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year
Parity-

3Li Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
p (proton emission)%

4Li

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
4.027185561 ± 0.000227733 Da
Mass Number4
G-Factor
Half Life
91 ± 9 ys
Spin2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1965
Parity-

4Li Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
p (proton emission)100%

5Li

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
5.0125378 ± 0.000053677 Da
Mass Number5
G-Factor
Half Life
370 ± 30 ys
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1941
Parity-

5Li Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
p (proton emission)100%

6Li

Abundance
4.85 ± 1.71
Relative Atomic Mass
6.01512288742 ± 0.00000000155 Da
Mass Number6
G-Factor
0.822043 ± 0.000003
Half Life
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
-0.000806 ± 0.000006
Discovery Year1921
Parity+

7Li

Abundance
95.15 ± 1.71
Relative Atomic Mass
7.01600343426 ± 0.0000000045 Da
Mass Number7
G-Factor
2.170938 ± 0.000008
Half Life
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
-0.04 ± 0.0003
Discovery Year1921
Parity-

8Li

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
8.022486244 ± 0.00000005 Da
Mass Number8
G-Factor
0.82675 ± 0.00001
Half Life
838.7 ± 0.3 ms
Spin2
Quadrupole Moment
0.0314 ± 0.0002
Discovery Year1935
Parity+

8Li Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
βα (β-delayed α emission)100%

9Li

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
9.026790191 ± 0.0000002 Da
Mass Number9
G-Factor
2.2911066666667 ± 0.00004
Half Life
178.2 ± 0.4 ms
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
-0.0304 ± 0.0002
Discovery Year1951
Parity-

9Li Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)50.5%

10Li

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
10.035483453 ± 0.000013656 Da
Mass Number10
G-Factor
Half Life
2 ± 0.5 zs
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1975
Parity-

10Li Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
n (neutron emission)100%

11Li

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
11.043723581 ± 0.00000066 Da
Mass Number11
G-Factor
2.4474 ± 0.00013333333333333
Half Life
8.75 ± 0.06 ms
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
-0.0333 ± 0.0005
Discovery Year1966
Parity-

11Li Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)86.3%
2n (2-neutron emission)4.1%
3n (3-neutron emission)1.9%
βα (β-delayed α emission)1.7%
β d (β-delayed deuteron emission)0.013%
β t (β-delayed triton emission)0.0093%

12Li

Abundance
Relative Atomic Mass
12.052613942 ± 0.000032213 Da
Mass Number12
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2008
Parity-

12Li Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
n (neutron emission)%

13Li

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
13.061171503 ± 0.00007515 Da
Mass Number13
G-Factor
Half Life
3.3 ± 1.2 zs
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2008
Parity-

13Li Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
2n (2-neutron emission)100%

History

Lithium was discovered by Johann Arfvedson in 1817 when he was analyzing minerals from the island of Uto in Sweden. The pure metal was isolated the following year by both Swedish chemist William Thomas Brande and English chemist Sir Humphry Davy working independently. In 1855, larger quantities of lithium were produced through the electrolysis of lithium chloride by Robert Bunsen and Augustus Matthiessen. From the Greek word lithos, stone

DiscoverersJohann Arfwedson
Discovery LocationSweden
Discovery Year1817
Etymology (Name Origin)Greek: lithos (stone).
PronunciationLITH-i-em (English)
Lithium is corrosive and requires special handling to avoid skin contact
Lithium is the only metal which reacts with nitrogen under normal conditions

Uses

Pure lithium metal is used in rechargeable lithium ion batteries. Lithium stearate is used as an all-purpose and high-temperature lubricant. Lithium is used in special glasses and ceramics. Metallic lithium and its complex hydrides are used as high energy additives to rocket propellants. Used in batteries. Also for certain kinds of glass and ceramics. Some is used in lubricants.

Sources

Obtained by passing electric charge through melted lithium chloride and from the silicate mineral called spodumene [LiAl(Si2O6)].

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
Abundance in Oceans
0.18 mg/L
Abundance in Human Body
0.000003 %
Abundance in Meteor
0.00017 %
Abundance in Sun
0.000000006 %
Abundance in Universe
0.0000006 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s0.3094
2s1.7208