Carbon

Carbon (C)

Carbon is a member of group 14 of the periodic table. It has three allotropic forms of it, diamonds, graphite and fullerite. Carbon-14 is commonly used in radioactive dating. Carbon occurs in all organic life and is the basis of organic chemistry. Carbon has the interesting chemical property of being able to bond with itself, and a wide variety of other elements.
Atomic Number6
Atomic Weight12.011
Mass Number12
Group14
Period2
Blockp
Protons6 p+
Neutrons6 n0
Electrons6 e-
Coal anthracite.jpg Electron shell 006 Carbon.svg Animated Bohr Model of C (Carbon) Enhanced Bohr Model of C (Carbon) Bohr Model: C (Carbon) Orbital Diagram of C (Carbon)

Properties

Atomic Radius
70 pm
Molar Volume
Covalent Radius
75 pm
Metallic Radius
Ionic Radius
-8 pm
Crystal Radius
6 pm
Van der Waals Radius
170 pm
Density
2.2 g/cm³
Energy
Proton Affinity
Electron Affinity
1.262119 eV/particle
Ionization Energy
11.260296 eV/particle
Heat of Vaporization
Heat of Fusion
Heat of Formation
716.87 kJ/mol
Electrons
Electron Shells2, 4
Valence Electrons4
Electron Configuration[He] 2s2 2p2
Oxidation States-4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4
Electronegativity
2.55
Electrophilicity
1.960493365843406 eV/particle
Phases
PhaseSolid
Gas Phase
Boiling Point
4,098.15 K
Melting Point
4,762.15 K
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
Triple Point
4,762.15 K
10,300 kPa
Visual
Color
Black
Appearance
Refractive Index
2.417
Thermodynamic Properties
Thermal Conductivity
1.59 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion
0.0000071 1/K
Molar Heat Capacity
8.517 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.709 J/(g⋅K)
Heat Capacity Ratio (Adiabatic Index)
Electrical Properties
TypeConductor
Electrical Conductivity
0.1 MS/m
Electrical Resistivity
0.00001 m Ω
Superconducting Point
Magnetism
Typediamagnetic
Magnetic Susceptibility (Mass)
-0.0000000062 m³/Kg
Magnetic Susceptibility (Molar)
-0.0000000000745 m³/mol
Magnetic Susceptibility (Volume)
-0.000014
Magnetic Ordering
Curie Point
Neel Point
Structure
Crystal StructureSimple Hexagonal (DIA)
Lattice Constant
3.57 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, 2 π/3
Mechanical Properties
Hardness
0.5 MPa
Bulk Modulus
33 GPa
Shear Modulus
Young Modulus
Poisson Ratio
Speed of Sound
18,350 m/s
Classification
CategoryOther nonmetals, Nonmetals
CAS GroupIVB
IUPAC GroupIVA
Glawe Number87
Mendeleev Number87
Pettifor Number95
Geochemical Classsemi-volatile
Goldschmidt Classatmophile
Other
Gas Basicity
Dipole Polarizability
11.3 ± 0.2 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
46.6 a₀
AllotropesGraphite, Diamond, Amorphous Carbon, Lonsdaleite, Fullerene, Carbon Nanotube, Graphene
Neutron Cross Section
0.0035
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.000015
Quantum Numbers3P0
Space Group194 (P63/mmc)

Isotopes of Carbon

Stable Isotopes2
Unstable Isotopes14
Radioactive Isotopes12

8C

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
8.037643039 ± 0.000019584 Da
Mass Number8
G-Factor
0
Half Life
3.5 ± 1.4 zs
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1974
Parity+

8C Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
2p (2-proton emission)100%

9C

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
9.031037202 ± 0.000002293 Da
Mass Number9
G-Factor
0.9276 ± 0.00033333333333333
Half Life
126.5 ± 0.9 ms
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1964
Parity-

9C Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)7.5%
β+α (β+-delayed α emission)38.4%

10C

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
10.016853217 ± 0.000000075 Da
Mass Number10
G-Factor
0
Half Life
19.3011 ± 0.0015 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1949
Parity+

10C Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

11C

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
11.011432597 ± 0.000000064 Da
Mass Number11
G-Factor
-0.64266666666667 ± 0.00066666666666667
Half Life
20.3402 ± 0.0053 m
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.0333 ± 0.0002
Discovery Year1934
Parity-

11C Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

12C

Abundance
98.94 ± 0.06
Relative Atomic Mass
12 Da
Mass Number12
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1919
Parity+

13C

Abundance
1.06 ± 0.06
Relative Atomic Mass
13.00335483534 ± 0.00000000025 Da
Mass Number13
G-Factor
1.404738 ± 0.000008
Half Life
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1929
Parity-

14C

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
14.00324198862 ± 0.00000000403 Da
Mass Number14
G-Factor
0
Half Life
5.7 ± 0.03 ky
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1936
Parity+

14C Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

15C

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
15.010599256 ± 0.000000858 Da
Mass Number15
G-Factor
3.44 ± 0.018
Half Life
2.449 ± 0.005 s
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1950
Parity+

15C Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

16C

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
16.014701255 ± 0.00000384 Da
Mass Number16
G-Factor
0
Half Life
750 ± 6 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1961
Parity+

16C Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)99%

17C

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
17.02257865 ± 0.000018641 Da
Mass Number17
G-Factor
0.50533333333333 ± 0.0026666666666667
Half Life
193 ± 6 ms
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1968
Parity+

17C Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)28.4%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

18C

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
18.02675193 ± 0.000032206 Da
Mass Number18
G-Factor
0
Half Life
92 ± 2 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1969
Parity+

18C Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)31.5%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

19C

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
19.034797594 ± 0.000105625 Da
Mass Number19
G-Factor
Half Life
46.2 ± 2.3 ms
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1974
Parity+

19C Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)47%
2n (2-neutron emission)7%

20C

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
20.040261732 ± 0.000247585 Da
Mass Number20
G-Factor
0
Half Life
16 ± 3 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1981
Parity+

20C Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)70%
2n (2-neutron emission)18.6%

21C

Abundance
Relative Atomic Mass
21.049 ± 0.00064 Da
Mass Number21
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year
Parity+

21C Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
n (neutron emission)%

22C

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
22.05755399 ± 0.000248515 Da
Mass Number22
G-Factor
0
Half Life
6.2 ± 1.3 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1986
Parity+

22C Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)61%
2n (2-neutron emission)37%

23C

Abundance
Relative Atomic Mass
23.06889 ± 0.00107 Da
Mass Number23
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year
Parity+

23C Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
n (neutron emission)%

History

Carbon was discovered in prehistory and was known in the forms of soot and charcoal to the earliest human civilizations. In 1772, Antoine Lavoisier showed that diamonds are a form of carbon; when he burned samples of charcoal and diamond and found that neither produced any water. In 1779, Carl Wilhelm Scheele showed that graphite burned to form carbon dioxide and so must be another form of carbon. From the Latin word carbo, charcoal

DiscoverersKnown to the ancients
Discovery Location
Discovery Year
Etymology (Name Origin)Latin: carbo, (charcoal).
PronunciationKAR-ben (English)
Pure carbon has extremely low toxicity to humans and can be handled safely in the form of graphite or charcoal
About 20% of the weight of living organisms is carbon

Uses

The major use of carbon other than food and wood is in the form of hydrocarbons, most notably the fossil fuel methane gas and crude oil. Graphite is used for pencil tips, high temperature crucibles, dry cells, electrodes and as a lubricant. Diamonds are used in jewelry and in industry for cutting, drilling, grinding, and polishing. Carbon black is used as the black pigment in printing ink. For making steel, in filters, and many more uses. Radiocarbon dating uses the carbon-14 isotope to date old objects.

Sources

Made by burning organic compounds with insufficient oxygen.

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
200 mg/kg
Abundance in Oceans
28 mg/L
Abundance in Human Body
23 %
Abundance in Meteor
1.5 %
Abundance in Sun
0.3 %
Abundance in Universe
0.5 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s0.3273
2p2.8642
2s2.7834