Carbon

Carbon (C)

Carbon is the 6th element in the periodic table and has a symbol of C and atomic number of 6. It has an atomic weight of 12.011 and a mass number of 12. Carbon has six protons and six neutrons in its nucleus, and six electrons in two shells. It is located in group fourteen, period two and block p of the periodic table. Carbon is a member of group 14 of the periodic table. It has three allotropic forms of it, diamonds, graphite and fullerite. Carbon-14 is commonly used in radioactive dating. Carbon occurs in all organic life and is the basis of organic chemistry. Carbon has the interesting chemical property of being able to bond with itself, and a wide variety of other elements.
Atomic Number6
Atomic Weight12.011
Mass Number12
Group14
Period2
Blockp
Protons6 p+
Neutrons6 n0
Electrons6 e-
Animated Bohr Model of C (Carbon)

Physical Properties

Atomic Radius
70 pm
Molar Volume
Covalent Radius
75 pm
Metallic Radius
Ionic Radius
-8 pm
Crystal Radius
6 pm
Van der Waals Radius
170 pm
Density
2.2 g/cm³
Atomic Radii of the Elements: Carbon0102030405060708090100110120130140150160170pmAtomic RadiusCovalent RadiusMetallic RadiusVan der Waals Radius

Chemical Properties

Energy
Proton Affinity
Electron Affinity
1.262119 eV/particle
Ionization Energy
11.260296 eV/particle
Ionization Energies of C (Carbon)
Heat of Vaporization
Heat of Fusion
Heat of Formation
716.87 kJ/mol
Electrons
Electron Shells2, 4
Bohr Model: C (Carbon)
Valence Electrons4
Lewis Structure: C (Carbon)
Electron Configuration[He] 2s2 2p2
1s2 2s2 2p2
Enhanced Bohr Model of C (Carbon)
Orbital Diagram of C (Carbon)
Oxidation States-4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4
Electronegativity
2.55
Electrophilicity Index
1.960493365843406 eV/particle
States of Matter
PhaseSolid
Gas Phase
Boiling Point
4,098.15 K
Melting Point
4,762.15 K
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
Triple Point
4,762.15 K
10,300 kPa
Visual

Carbon is a Black. C has a CPK of #c8c8c8, Jmol of #909090, and MOLCAS GV of #555555. The Refractive Index of Element 6 is 2.417.

Color
Black
Appearance
Refractive Index
2.417
Thermodynamic Properties
Thermal Conductivity
1.59 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion
0.0000071 1/K
Molar Heat Capacity
8.517 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.709 J/(g⋅K)
Heat Capacity Ratio (Adiabatic Index)
Electrical Properties
TypeConductor
Electrical Conductivity
0.1 MS/m
Electrical Resistivity
0.00001 m Ω
Superconducting Point
Magnetism
Typediamagnetic
Magnetic Susceptibility (Mass)
-0.0000000062 m³/Kg
Magnetic Susceptibility (Molar)
-0.0000000000745 m³/mol
Magnetic Susceptibility (Volume)
-0.000014
Magnetic Ordering
Curie Point
Neel Point
Structure

The Crystal Structure of Carbon is DIA. The lattice constant of C is 3.57 Å. The lattice angles of Element 6 are π/2, π/2, 2 π/3.

Crystal StructureSimple Hexagonal (DIA)
Lattice Constant
3.57 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, 2 π/3
Mechanical Properties

Carbon has a Mohs hardness of 0.5 MPa. The Bulk Modulus of C is 33 GPa. The Speed of Sound of Element 6 is 18350 m/s.

Hardness
0.5 MPa
Bulk Modulus
33 GPa
Shear Modulus
Young's Modulus
Poisson Ratio
Speed of Sound
18,350 m/s
Classification

The CAS Group of Carbon is IVB. The IUPAC Group of C is IVA. The Glawe Number of Element 6 is 87. The Mendeleev Number of Carbon (C) is 87. The Pettifor Number of Carbon is 95. The Geochemical Class of C is semi-volatile. The Goldschmidt Class of Element 6 is atmophile.

CategoryOther nonmetals, Nonmetals
CAS GroupIVB
IUPAC GroupIVA
Glawe Number87
Mendeleev Number87
Pettifor Number95
Geochemical Classsemi-volatile
Goldschmidt Classatmophile

Other

The Dipole Polarizability of Carbon is 11.3 plus or minus 0.2 a₀. C has a C6 Dispersion Coefficient (CD) of 46.6 a₀, and C6 Dispersion Coefficient (GB) of 47.9 a₀. The Allotropes of Element 6 are Graphite, Diamond, Amorphous Carbon, Lonsdaleite, Fullerene, Carbon Nanotube, Graphene. The Neutron Cross Section of Carbon (C) is 0.0035. The Neutron Mass Absorption of Carbon is 1.5E-5. The Quantum Numbers of C is 3P0. The Space Group of Element 6 is 194 (P63/mmc).

Gas Basicity
Dipole Polarizability
11.3 ± 0.2 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
46.6 a₀
AllotropesGraphite, Diamond, Amorphous Carbon, Lonsdaleite, Fullerene, Carbon Nanotube, Graphene
Neutron Cross Section
0.0035
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.000015
Quantum Numbers3P0
Space Group194 (P63/mmc)

Isotopes of Carbon

Stable Isotopes2
Unstable Isotopes14
Natural Isotopes2
Isotopic Composition1298.94%1298.94%131.06%131.06%

8C

Mass Number8
Neutron Number2
Relative Atomic Mass
8.037643039 ± 0.000019584 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
3.5 ± 1.4 zs
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1974
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
2p (2-proton emission)100%

9C

Mass Number9
Neutron Number3
Relative Atomic Mass
9.031037202 ± 0.000002293 Da
G-Factor
0.9276 ± 0.00033333333333333
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
126.5 ± 0.9 ms
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1964
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)7.5%
β+α (β+-delayed α emission)38.4%

10C

Mass Number10
Neutron Number4
Relative Atomic Mass
10.016853217 ± 0.000000075 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
19.3011 ± 0.0015 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1949
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

11C

Mass Number11
Neutron Number5
Relative Atomic Mass
11.011432597 ± 0.000000064 Da
G-Factor
-0.64266666666667 ± 0.00066666666666667
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
20.3402 ± 0.0053 m
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.0333 ± 0.0002
Discovery Year1934
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

12C

Mass Number12
Neutron Number6
Relative Atomic Mass
12 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
98.94 ± 0.06
RadioactivityStable
Half LifeNot Radioactive ☢️
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1919
Parity+

13C

Mass Number13
Neutron Number7
Relative Atomic Mass
13.00335483534 ± 0.00000000025 Da
G-Factor
1.404738 ± 0.000008
Abundance
1.06 ± 0.06
RadioactivityStable
Half LifeNot Radioactive ☢️
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1929
Parity-

14C

Mass Number14
Neutron Number8
Relative Atomic Mass
14.00324198862 ± 0.00000000403 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
5.7 ± 0.03 ky
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1936
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

15C

Mass Number15
Neutron Number9
Relative Atomic Mass
15.010599256 ± 0.000000858 Da
G-Factor
3.44 ± 0.018
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
2.449 ± 0.005 s
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1950
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

16C

Mass Number16
Neutron Number10
Relative Atomic Mass
16.014701255 ± 0.00000384 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
750 ± 6 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1961
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)99%

17C

Mass Number17
Neutron Number11
Relative Atomic Mass
17.02257865 ± 0.000018641 Da
G-Factor
0.50533333333333 ± 0.0026666666666667
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
193 ± 6 ms
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1968
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)28.4%
2n (2-neutron emission)

18C

Mass Number18
Neutron Number12
Relative Atomic Mass
18.02675193 ± 0.000032206 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
92 ± 2 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1969
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)31.5%
2n (2-neutron emission)

19C

Mass Number19
Neutron Number13
Relative Atomic Mass
19.034797594 ± 0.000105625 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
46.2 ± 2.3 ms
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1974
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)47%
2n (2-neutron emission)7%

20C

Mass Number20
Neutron Number14
Relative Atomic Mass
20.040261732 ± 0.000247585 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
16 ± 3 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1981
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)70%
2n (2-neutron emission)18.6%

21C

Mass Number21
Neutron Number15
Relative Atomic Mass
21.049 ± 0.00064 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
n (neutron emission)

22C

Mass Number22
Neutron Number16
Relative Atomic Mass
22.05755399 ± 0.000248515 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
6.2 ± 1.3 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1986
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)61%
2n (2-neutron emission)37%

23C

Mass Number23
Neutron Number17
Relative Atomic Mass
23.06889 ± 0.00107 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
n (neutron emission)
Coal anthracite
Electron shell 006 Carbon

History

Carbon was discovered in prehistory and was known in the forms of soot and charcoal to the earliest human civilizations. In 1772, Antoine Lavoisier showed that diamonds are a form of carbon; when he burned samples of charcoal and diamond and found that neither produced any water. In 1779, Carl Wilhelm Scheele showed that graphite burned to form carbon dioxide and so must be another form of carbon. From the Latin word carbo, charcoal

DiscoverersKnown to the ancients
Discovery Location
Discovery Year
Etymology (Name Origin)Latin: carbo, (charcoal).
PronunciationKAR-ben (English)
Pure carbon has extremely low toxicity to humans and can be handled safely in the form of graphite or charcoal
About 20% of the weight of living organisms is carbon

Uses

The major use of carbon other than food and wood is in the form of hydrocarbons, most notably the fossil fuel methane gas and crude oil. Graphite is used for pencil tips, high temperature crucibles, dry cells, electrodes and as a lubricant. Diamonds are used in jewelry and in industry for cutting, drilling, grinding, and polishing. Carbon black is used as the black pigment in printing ink. For making steel, in filters, and many more uses. Radiocarbon dating uses the carbon-14 isotope to date old objects.

Sources

Made by burning organic compounds with insufficient oxygen.

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
200 mg/kg
Natural Abundance (Oceans)
28 mg/L
Natural Abundance (Human Body)
23 %
Natural Abundance (Meteor)
1.5 %
Natural Abundance (Sun)
0.3 %
Abundance in Universe
0.5 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s0.3273
2p2.8642
2s2.7834

Also Known As

  • C
  • element 6
  • 6C

Translations

  • Italiancarbonio
  • Frenchcarbone
  • Spanishcarbono
  • Norwegian Bokmålkarbon
  • Polishwęgiel
  • GermanKohlenstoff
  • Esperantokarbono
  • Russianуглерод
  • Dutchkoolstof
  • Chinese (Traditional)
  • Ilokokarbon
  • Hungarianszén
  • Afrikaanskoolstof
  • Amharicካርቦን
  • AragoneseCarbonio
  • Arabicكربون
  • Egyptian Arabicكاربون
  • AsturianCarbonu
  • AzerbaijaniKarbon
  • BashkirУглерод
  • BelarusianВуглярод
  • Bulgarianвъглерод
  • Banglaকার্বন
  • BretonKarbon
  • Bosnianugljik
  • Catalancarboni
  • CebuanoKarbon
  • CherokeeᎤᎦᏔ ᏅᏓᏳᏓᎴᏅ ᏬᏗᎨ
  • Central Kurdishکاربۆن
  • CorsicanCarboniu
  • Czechuhlík
  • ChuvashКăмрăк
  • Welshcarbon
  • Danishcarbon
  • German (Switzerland)Kohlenstoff
  • GreekΆνθρακας
  • English (Canada)Carbon
  • English (United Kingdom)carbon
  • Estoniansüsinik
  • Basquekarbono
  • Persianکربن
  • Finnishhiili
  • Northern FrisianKarboon
  • FriulianCarboni
  • Western FrisianKoalstof
  • Irishcarbón
  • Scottish GaelicGualan
  • Galiciancarbono
  • Gujaratiકાર્બન
  • ManxCarboan
  • Hakka ChineseThan
  • HawaiianKalepona
  • Hebrewפחמן
  • Fiji HindiKoila
  • Hindiकार्बन
  • CroatianUgljik
  • Upper SorbianWuhlik
  • Haitian CreoleKabòn
  • Armenianածխածին
  • Interlinguacarbon
  • Indonesiankarbon
  • Idokarbo
  • Icelandickolefni
  • Japanese炭素
  • Lojbantabno
  • JavaneseKarbon
  • Georgianნახშირბადი
  • KazakhКөміртегі
  • Kannadaಇಂಗಾಲ
  • Komi-PermyakШомувтыр
  • Korean탄소
  • ColognianKohlenstoff
  • KurdishKarbon
  • KomiШомчужысь
  • Latincarbonium
  • LuxembourgishKuelestoff
  • LigurianCarbonio
  • LimburgishKoolstof
  • LombardCarboni
  • LingalaKaboni
  • LithuanianAnglis
  • Latvianogleklis
  • map (BMS)Karbon
  • MokshaСедель
  • MalagasyKarbônina
  • MariШӱйдӱҥ
  • Māoriwaro
  • Macedonianјаглерод
  • Malayalamകാർബൺ
  • Mongolianнүүрстөрөгч
  • Western MariУглерод
  • Marathiकार्बन
  • Malaykarbon
  • Maltesekarbonju
  • ErzyaСедь
  • Burmeseကာဗွန်
  • nahTecolli
  • Low GermanKohlenstoff
  • Nepaliकार्बन
  • Norwegian Nynorskkarbon
  • Novialkarbo
  • NavajoKáábin
  • Occitancarbòni
  • OsseticÆвзалыгуыр
  • Papiamentokarbon
  • Punjabiਕਾਰਬਨ
  • Western Panjabiکاربن
  • Portuguesecarbono
  • Portuguese (Brazil)carbono
  • QuechuaK'illimsayaq
  • Romaniancarbon
  • RusynВуглець
  • YakutКарбон
  • Siciliancarboniu
  • Serbo-CroatianUgljenik
  • Sinhalaකාබන්
  • Slovakuhlík
  • Slovenianogljik
  • AlbanianKarboni
  • Serbianугљеник
  • Saterland FrisianKoolestof
  • SundaneseKarbon
  • Swedishkol
  • SwahiliKaboni
  • Tamilகரிமம்
  • Teluguకార్బన్
  • TajikКарбон
  • Thaiคาร์บอน
  • TagalogKarbon
  • Turkishkarbon
  • Tatarкүмер
  • Uyghurكاربون
  • Ukrainianвуглець
  • Urduفحم
  • UzbekUglerod
  • VenetianCarbonio
  • VepsHil'nik
  • Vietnamesecarbon
  • West FlemishCarbong
  • WarayCarbono
  • WalloonCarbone
  • Wu Chinese
  • KalmykНүртөр
  • Yiddishקוילנשטאף
  • YorubaKárbọ̀nù
  • Cantonese
  • Chinese
  • FijianKaboni
  • Lower Sorbianwuglik
  • Odiaଅଙ୍ଗାରକ
  • GuaraniTatapỹi
  • Scotscarbon
  • KikuyuCarbon
  • FaroeseKolevni
  • PiedmonteseCarbòni
  • Chinese (Hong Kong SAR China)
  • Chinese (China)
  • Swiss GermanKohlenstoff
  • SamogitianOnglis
  • Min Nan ChineseThoàⁿ-sò͘
  • Literary Chinese
  • Belarusian (Taraskievica orthography)вуглярод
  • Newariकार्बोन
  • SomaliKaarboon
  • BuriatНүүрһэнтүрэгшэ
  • LezghianУглерод
  • cdoTáng
  • SardinianCarbòniu
  • Sanskritकार्बन
  • KyrgyzКөмүртек
  • ZhuangDanq
  • Gan Chinese
  • AromanianCarbonu
  • Tibetanསོཕ་རྗས།
  • Bhojpuriकार्बन
  • azbکربون
  • Assameseকাৰ্বন
  • Jamaican Creole EnglishKaaban
  • oloHiilisuadu
  • Paliकार्बोन
  • Lingua Franca Novacarbono
  • Tatar (Cyrillic)күмер
  • XhosaI-carbon
  • ShonaCarbon
  • VolapükKarbin
  • Khmerកាបូន
  • kbpKarɩbɔnɩ
  • KabyleAkaṛbun
  • hywԱծխածին
  • Chinese (Taiwan)
  • ExtremaduranCarbonu
  • gcrKarbonn
  • Chinese (Simplified)
  • Chinese (Singapore)
  • Chinese (Malaysia)
  • Chinese (Macao SAR China)
  • TuvinianУглерод
  • Moroccan Arabicكربون
  • Pashtoکاربون
  • Cornishkarbon
  • lldCarbonie
  • BikolKarbon
  • Manipuriꯀꯥꯔꯕꯣꯟ
  • BalineseKarbon
  • Inari Samičiđđâ
  • Crimean Tatarkarbon
  • Northern Samičitna
  • Skolt Samiill
  • ZuluIkhaboni
  • Malay (Arabic)کربون
  • MinangkabauKarbon
  • InterlingueCarbon
  • Sindhiڪاربن
  • blkကာဗွန်
  • skrکاربن
  • Silesianwōngel
  • OromoKaarboonii