Nitrogen

Nitrogen (N)

Colourless, gaseous element which belongs to group 15 of the periodic table. Constitutes ~78% of the atmosphere and is an essential part of the ecosystem. Nitrogen for industrial purposes is acquired by the fractional distillation of liquid air. Chemically inactive, reactive generally only at high temperatures or in electrical discharges. It was discovered in 1772 by D. Rutherford.
Atomic Number7
Atomic Weight14.007
Mass Number14
Group15
Period2
Blockp
Protons7 p+
Neutrons7 n0
Electrons7 e-
Liquidnitrogen.jpg Animated Bohr Model of N (Nitrogen) Enhanced Bohr Model of N (Nitrogen) Bohr Model: N (Nitrogen) Orbital Diagram of N (Nitrogen)

Properties

Atomic Radius
65 pm
Molar Volume
Covalent Radius
71 pm
Metallic Radius
Ionic Radius
146 pm
Crystal Radius
132 pm
Van der Waals Radius
155 pm
Density
0.001145 g/cm³
Energy
Proton Affinity
342.2 kJ/mol
Electron Affinity
Ionization Energy
14.53413 eV/particle
Heat of Vaporization
Heat of Fusion
Heat of Formation
472.44 kJ/mol
Electrons
Electron Shells2, 5
Valence Electrons3
Electron Configuration[He] 2s2 2p3
Oxidation States-3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Electronegativity
3.04
Electrophilicity
1.353269450990578 eV/particle
Phases
PhaseGas
Gas PhaseDiatomic
Boiling Point
77.355 K
Melting Point
63.15 K
Critical Pressure
3.3958 MPa
Critical Temperature
126.192 K
Triple Point
63.151 K
12.52 kPa
Visual
Color
Colorless
Appearancecolorless gas, liquid or solid
Refractive Index
1.000298
Thermodynamic Properties
Thermal Conductivity
0.026 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion
Molar Heat Capacity
29.124 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
Heat Capacity Ratio (Adiabatic Index)7/5
Electrical Properties
Type
Electrical Conductivity
Electrical Resistivity
Superconducting Point
Magnetism
Typediamagnetic
Magnetic Susceptibility (Mass)
-0.0000000054 m³/Kg
Magnetic Susceptibility (Molar)
-0.00000000015 m³/mol
Magnetic Susceptibility (Volume)
-0.0000000068
Magnetic Ordering
Curie Point
Neel Point
Structure
Crystal StructureSimple Hexagonal (HEX)
Lattice Constant
4.039 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, 2 π/3
Mechanical Properties
Hardness
Bulk Modulus
Shear Modulus
Young Modulus
Poisson Ratio
Speed of Sound
333.6 m/s
Classification
CategoryOther nonmetals, Nonmetals
CAS GroupVB
IUPAC GroupVA
Glawe Number88
Mendeleev Number93
Pettifor Number100
Geochemical Classvolatile
Goldschmidt Classatmophile
Other
Gas Basicity
318.7 kJ/mol
Dipole Polarizability
7.4 ± 0.2 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
24.2 a₀
AllotropesDinitrogen
Neutron Cross Section
1.91
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.0048
Quantum Numbers4S3/2
Space Group194 (P63/mmc)

Isotopes of Nitrogen

Stable Isotopes2
Unstable Isotopes14
Radioactive Isotopes12

10N

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
10.04165354 ± 0.000429417 Da
Mass Number10
G-Factor
Half Life
143 ± 36 ys
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2002
Parity-

10N Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
p (proton emission)%

11N

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
11.026157593 ± 0.000005368 Da
Mass Number11
G-Factor
Half Life
585 ± 7 ys
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1974
Parity+

11N Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
p (proton emission)100%

12N

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
12.01861318 ± 0.000001073 Da
Mass Number12
G-Factor
0.4571 ± 0.0001
Half Life
11 ± 0.016 ms
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
0.01 ± 0.0009
Discovery Year1949
Parity+

12N Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+α (β+-delayed α emission)1.93%

13N

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
13.005738609 ± 0.000000289 Da
Mass Number13
G-Factor
0.6438 ± 0.0008
Half Life
9.965 ± 0.004 m
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1934
Parity-

13N Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

14N

Abundance
99.6205 ± 0.0247
Relative Atomic Mass
14.00307400425 ± 0.00000000024 Da
Mass Number14
G-Factor
0.403573 ± 0.000002
Half Life
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1920
Parity+

15N

Abundance
0.3795 ± 0.0247
Relative Atomic Mass
15.00010889827 ± 0.00000000062 Da
Mass Number15
G-Factor
-0.5661138 ± 0.0000028
Half Life
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1929
Parity-

16N

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
16.006101925 ± 0.00000247 Da
Mass Number16
G-Factor
0.9928 ± 0.00055
Half Life
7.13 ± 0.02 s
Spin2
Quadrupole Moment
-0.018 ± 0.002
Discovery Year1933
Parity-

16N Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
βα (β-delayed α emission)0.00154%

17N

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
17.008448876 ± 0.000016103 Da
Mass Number17
G-Factor
0.7104 ± 0.0008
Half Life
4.173 ± 0.004 s
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1949
Parity-

17N Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)95.1%
βα (β-delayed α emission)0.0025%

18N

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
18.014077563 ± 0.000019935 Da
Mass Number18
G-Factor
0.3274 ± 0.0004
Half Life
619.2 ± 1.9 ms
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
0.0123 ± 0.0012
Discovery Year1964
Parity-

18N Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)7%
βα (β-delayed α emission)12.2%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

19N

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
19.017022389 ± 0.00001761 Da
Mass Number19
G-Factor
0.61 ± 0.03
Half Life
336 ± 3 ms
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1968
Parity-

19N Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)41.8%

20N

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
20.023367295 ± 0.000084696 Da
Mass Number20
G-Factor
Half Life
136 ± 3 ms
Spin2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1969
Parity-

20N Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)42.9%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

21N

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
21.027087573 ± 0.000143906 Da
Mass Number21
G-Factor
Half Life
85 ± 5 ms
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1970
Parity-

21N Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)87%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

22N

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
22.034100918 ± 0.00022306 Da
Mass Number22
G-Factor
0
Half Life
23 ± 3 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1979
Parity-

22N Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)34%
2n (2-neutron emission)12%

23N

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
23.039421 ± 0.0004515 Da
Mass Number23
G-Factor
Half Life
13.9 ± 1.4 ms
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1985
Parity-

23N Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)42%
2n (2-neutron emission)8%
3n (3-neutron emission)3.4%

24N

Abundance
Relative Atomic Mass
24.05039 ± 0.00043 Da
Mass Number24
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year
Parity

24N Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
n (neutron emission)%

25N

Abundance
Relative Atomic Mass
25.0601 ± 0.00054 Da
Mass Number25
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year
Parity-

25N Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
n (neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%
β (β decay)%

History

Nitrogen is considered to have been discovered by Scottish physician Daniel Rutherford in 1772, who called it noxious air or fixed air. It was also studied at about the same time by Carl Wilhelm Scheele, Henry Cavendish and Joseph Priestley. In 1790 the French chemist Jean-Antoine-Claude Chaptal named the element nitrogen. From the Latin word nitrum, Greek Nitron, native soda; and genes, forming

DiscoverersDaniel Rutherford
Discovery LocationScotland
Discovery Year1772
Etymology (Name Origin)Greek: nitron and genes, (soda forming).
PronunciationNYE-treh-gen (English)
Rapid release of nitrogen gas into an enclosed space can displace oxygen, and therefore represents an asphyxiation hazard
Nitrogen is present in all living organisms, in proteins, nucleic acids and other molecules

Uses

Nitrogen is used to produce ammonia and fertilizers, vital for current food production methods. Liquid nitrogen is used as a refrigerant. Nitric acid is used as an oxidizing agent in liquid fueled rockets. Nitrogen is a constituent of molecules in every major drug class in pharmacology and medicine. Primarily to produce ammonia and other fertilizers. Also used in making nitric acid, which is used in explosives. Also used in welding and enhanced oil recovery.

Sources

Obtained from liquid air by fractional distillation.

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
Abundance in Oceans
0.5 mg/L
Abundance in Human Body
2.6 %
Abundance in Meteor
0.14 %
Abundance in Sun
0.1 %
Abundance in Universe
0.1 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s0.3349
2p3.166
2s3.1526