Karbon, ²Ugljik

Karbon, ²Ugljik (C)

hemijski element sa simbolom C i atomskim brojem 6
Atomic Number6
Atomic Weight12.011
Maseni broj12
Group14
Period2
Blockp
Proton6 p+
Neutron6 n0
Elektron6 e-
Animated Bohrov model atoma of C (Karbon, ²Ugljik)

Physical Property

Atomski Radijus
70 pm
Molarni volumen
covalent radius
75 pm
Metallic Radius
Ionski radijus
-8 pm
Crystal Radius
6 pm
Van der Waalsov radijus
170 pm
gustoća
2,2 g/cm³
Atomic Radii Of The Elements: Karbon, ²Ugljik0102030405060708090100110120130140150160170pmAtomski RadijusCovalent RadiusMetallic RadiusVan der Waalsov radijus

Chemical Property

energija
proton affinity
electron affinity
1,262119 eV/particle
ionization energy
11,260296 eV/particle
ionization energy of C (Karbon, ²Ugljik)
Toplota isparavanja
toplota topljenja
standard enthalpy of formation
716,87 kJ/mol
Elektron
electron shell2, 4
Bohrov model atoma: C (Karbon, ²Ugljik)
Valentni elektron4
Lewis structure: C (Karbon, ²Ugljik)
electron configuration[He] 2s2 2p2
1s2 2s2 2p2
Enhanced Bohrov model atoma of C (Karbon, ²Ugljik)
Orbital Diagram of C (Karbon, ²Ugljik)
oksidacijsko stanje-4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4
Elektronegativnost
2.55
Electrophilicity Index
1,960493365843406 eV/particle
fundamental state of matter
agregatno stanjeSolid
gaseous state of matter
Boiling Point
4.098,15 K
Melting Point
4.762,15 K
critical pressure
Kritična temperatura
Trojna tačka
4.762,15 K
10.300 kPa
appearance
boja
Black
appearance
Indeks prelamanja
2,417
thermodynamic material property
Thermal Conductivity
1,59 W/(m K)
thermal expansion
0,0000071 1/K
molar heat capacity
8,517 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0,709 J/(g⋅K)
heat capacity ratio
electrical properties
typeConductor
Specifična električna provodljivost
0,1 MS/m
electrical resistivity
0,00001 m Ω
Superprovodljivost
Magnetizam
typediamagnetic
magnetic susceptibility (Mass)
-0,0000000062 m³/Kg
magnetic susceptibility (Molar)
-0,0000000000745 m³/mol
magnetic susceptibility (Volume)
-0,000014
magnetic ordering
Kirijeva tačka
Néel temperature
struktura
Crystal StructureSimple Hexagonal (DIA)
lattice constant
3,57 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, 2 π/3
mechanical property
Tvrdoća
0,5 MPa
bulk modulus
33 GPa
shear modulus
Young's modulus
Poisson's ratio
Brzina zvuka
18.350 m/s
klasifikacija
CategoryOther nonmetals, Nonmetals
CAS GroupIVB
IUPAC GroupIVA
Glawe Number87
Mendeleev Number87
Pettifor Number95
Geochemical Classsemi-volatile
Goldschmidt classificationatmophile

other

Gas Basicity
polarizability
11,3 ± 0,2 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
46,6 a₀
allotropeGraphite, Diamond, Amorphous Carbon, Lonsdaleite, Fullerene, Carbon Nanotube, Graphene
Neutron cross section
0,0035
Neutron Mass Absorption
0,000015
Kvantni brojevi3P0
space group194 (P63/mmc)

Isotopes of Carbon

Stable Isotopes2
Unstable Isotopes14
Natural Isotopes2
Isotopic Composition1298.94%1298.94%131.06%131.06%

8C

Maseni broj8
broj neutrona2
relative atomic mass
8,037643039 ± 0,000019584 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
3,5 ± 1,4 zs
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1974
parity+

decay modeintensity
2p (2-proton emission)100%

9C

Maseni broj9
broj neutrona3
relative atomic mass
9,031037202 ± 0,000002293 Da
g-factor
0,9276 ± 0,00033333333333333
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
126,5 ± 0,9 ms
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića1964
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)7.5%
β+α (β+-delayed α emission)38.4%

10C

Maseni broj10
broj neutrona4
relative atomic mass
10,016853217 ± 0,000000075 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
19,3011 ± 0,0015 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1949
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

11C

Maseni broj11
broj neutrona5
relative atomic mass
11,011432597 ± 0,000000064 Da
g-factor
-0,64266666666667 ± 0,00066666666666667
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
20,3402 ± 0,0053 m
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0,0333 ± 0,0002
datum otkrića1934
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

12C

Maseni broj12
broj neutrona6
relative atomic mass
12 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
98,94 ± 0,06
Radioaktivnoststable isotope
Vrijeme poluraspadaNot Radioactive ☢️
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1919
parity+

13C

Maseni broj13
broj neutrona7
relative atomic mass
13,00335483534 ± 0,00000000025 Da
g-factor
1,404738 ± 0,000008
natural abundance
1,06 ± 0,06
Radioaktivnoststable isotope
Vrijeme poluraspadaNot Radioactive ☢️
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1929
parity-

14C

Maseni broj14
broj neutrona8
relative atomic mass
14,00324198862 ± 0,00000000403 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
5,7 ± 0,03 ky
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1936
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

15C

Maseni broj15
broj neutrona9
relative atomic mass
15,010599256 ± 0,000000858 Da
g-factor
3,44 ± 0,018
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
2,449 ± 0,005 s
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1950
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

16C

Maseni broj16
broj neutrona10
relative atomic mass
16,014701255 ± 0,00000384 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
750 ± 6 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1961
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)99%

17C

Maseni broj17
broj neutrona11
relative atomic mass
17,02257865 ± 0,000018641 Da
g-factor
0,50533333333333 ± 0,0026666666666667
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
193 ± 6 ms
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića1968
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)28.4%
2n (2-neutron emission)

18C

Maseni broj18
broj neutrona12
relative atomic mass
18,02675193 ± 0,000032206 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
92 ± 2 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1969
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)31.5%
2n (2-neutron emission)

19C

Maseni broj19
broj neutrona13
relative atomic mass
19,034797594 ± 0,000105625 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
46,2 ± 2,3 ms
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1974
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)47%
2n (2-neutron emission)7%

20C

Maseni broj20
broj neutrona14
relative atomic mass
20,040261732 ± 0,000247585 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
16 ± 3 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1981
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)70%
2n (2-neutron emission)18.6%

21C

Maseni broj21
broj neutrona15
relative atomic mass
21,049 ± 0,00064 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića
parity+

decay modeintensity
n (neutron emission)

22C

Maseni broj22
broj neutrona16
relative atomic mass
22,05755399 ± 0,000248515 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
6,2 ± 1,3 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1986
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)61%
2n (2-neutron emission)37%

23C

Maseni broj23
broj neutrona17
relative atomic mass
23,06889 ± 0,00107 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića
parity+

decay modeintensity
n (neutron emission)
Coal anthracite
Electron shell 006 Carbon

historija

otkrivač ili izumiteljKnown to the ancients
mjesto otkrića
datum otkrića
EtimologijaLatin: carbo, (charcoal).
pronunciationKAR-ben (engleski)

izvor

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
200 mg/kg
natural abundance (okean)
28 mg/L
natural abundance (ljudsko tijelo)
23 %
natural abundance (Meteoroidi)
1,5 %
natural abundance (Sunce)
0,3 %
Abundance in Universe
0,5 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s0.3273
2p2.8642
2s2.7834