Carbon

Carbon (C)

Carbon is a member of group 14 of the periodic table. It has three allotropic forms of it, diamonds, graphite and fullerite. Carbon-14 is commonly used in radioactive dating. Carbon occurs in all organic life and is the basis of organic chemistry. Carbon has the interesting chemical property of being able to bond with itself, and a wide variety of other elements.
Atomic Number6
Atomic Weight12.011
Mass Number12
Group14
Period2
Blockp
Protons6 p+
Neutrons6 n0
Electrons6 e-
Coal anthracite.jpg Electron shell 006 Carbon.svg Animated Bohr Model Enhanced Bohr Model Bohr Model Orbital Diagram

Properties

Atomic Radius
70 pm
Atomic Volume
Covalent Radius
75 pm
Metallic Radius
Ionic Radius
-8 pm
Crystal Radius
6 pm
Van der Waals radius
170 pm
Density
2.2 g/cm³
Boiling Point
5,100 K
Melting Point
3,820 K
Electrons per shell2, 4
Electronegativity
2.55
Electrophilicity
1.9604933658434 eV/particle
Proton Affinity
Electron Affinity
1.262119 eV/particle
Ionization Potential
11.260296 eV/particle
Heat of Vaporization
Heat of Fusion
Heat of Formation
716.87 kJ/mol
Molar Heat Capacity
8.517 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.709 J/(g⋅K)
Thermal Conductivity
1.59 W/(m K)
Gas Basicity
Dipole Polarizability
11.3 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
46.6 a₀
Oxidation States-4, -3, -2, -1, 1, 2, 3, 4
Color
Black
Crystal StructureSimple Hexagonal (DIA)
Lattice Constant
3.57 Å
Bulk Modulus
Electrical Resistivity
Electron Configuration[He] 2s2 2p2
Magnetic Ordering
Magnetic Susceptibility
PhaseSolid
Poisson Ratio
Shear Modulus
Young's Modulus
Allotropes
Alternate Names
Adiabatic Index
Appearance
Electric Conductivity
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
Curie Point
Electrical
Hardness
Magnetic Susceptibility
Magnetic
Neel Point
Neutron Cross Section
Neutron Mass Absorption
Gas Phase
Quantum Numbers
Refractive Index
Space Group
Speed of Sound
Superconducting Point
Thermal Expansion
Valence Electrons
Classification
CategoryOther nonmetals, Nonmetals
CAS GroupIVB
IUPAC GroupIVA
Glawe Number87
Mendeleev Number87
Pettifor Number95
Geochemical Classsemi-volatile
Goldschmidt Classatmophile
Radioactivity
RadioactiveNo
Decay Mode
Half-Life
Lifetime
Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
200 mg/kg
Abundance in Oceans
28 mg/L
Abundance in Human Body
Abundance in Meteor
Abundance in Sun
Abundance in Universe0.5%

Isotopes of Carbon

Stable Isotopes
12C 13C
Unstable Isotopes
8C 9C 10C 11C 14C 15C 16C 17C 18C 19C 20C 21C 22C

History

Carbon was discovered in prehistory and was known in the forms of soot and charcoal to the earliest human civilizations. In 1772, Antoine Lavoisier showed that diamonds are a form of carbon; when he burned samples of charcoal and diamond and found that neither produced any water. In 1779, Carl Wilhelm Scheele showed that graphite burned to form carbon dioxide and so must be another form of carbon. From the Latin word carbo, charcoal

DiscoverersKnown to the ancients
Discovery Location
Discovery Year
Name OriginLatin: carbo, (charcoal).
Pure carbon has extremely low toxicity to humans and can be handled safely in the form of graphite or charcoal
About 20% of the weight of living organisms is carbon

Uses

The major use of carbon other than food and wood is in the form of hydrocarbons, most notably the fossil fuel methane gas and crude oil. Graphite is used for pencil tips, high temperature crucibles, dry cells, electrodes and as a lubricant. Diamonds are used in jewelry and in industry for cutting, drilling, grinding, and polishing. Carbon black is used as the black pigment in printing ink. For making steel, in filters, and many more uses. Radiocarbon dating uses the carbon-14 isotope to date old objects.

Sources

Made by burning organic compounds with insufficient oxygen.