Ugljik

Ugljik (C)

chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6; common element of all known life
Atomski broj6
Relativna atomska masa12.011
Maseni broj12
Skupina14
Perioda2
Blokp
proton6 p+
neutron6 n0
elektron6 e-
Animated Bohrov model atoma of C (Ugljik)

Physical Property

Atomski Radijus
70 pm
Molni volumen
Kovalentni Radijus
75 pm
Metallic Radius
Ionski radijus
−8 pm
Crystal Radius
6 pm
Van der Waals radius
170 pm
gustoća
2,2 g/cm³
Atomic Radii Of The Elements: Ugljik0102030405060708090100110120130140150160170pmAtomski RadijusKovalentni RadijusMetallic RadiusVan der Waals radius

Kemijsko Svojstvo

energija
proton affinity
Elektronski afinitet
1,262119 eV/particle
ionization energy
11,260296 eV/particle
ionization energy of C (Ugljik)
Toplina isparivanja
toplina taljenja
standard enthalpy of formation
716,87 kJ/mol
elektron
Elektronska ljuska2, 4
Bohrov model atoma: C (Ugljik)
valence electron4
Lewis structure: C (Ugljik)
electron configuration[He] 2s2 2p2
1s2 2s2 2p2
Enhanced Bohrov model atoma of C (Ugljik)
Orbital Diagram of C (Ugljik)
Oksidacijski broj-4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4
Elektronegativnost
2.55
Electrophilicity Index
1,960493365843406 eV/particle
fundamental state of matter
agregatno stanjeČvrsto
gaseous state of matter
Vrelište
4.098,15 K
Talište
4.762,15 K
critical pressure
critical temperature
Trojna točka
4.762,15 K
10.300 kPa
appearance
boja
Crna
appearance
Indeks prelamanja
2,417
thermodynamic material property
Toplinska vodljivost
1,59 W/(m K)
Toplinsko istezanje
0,0000071 1/K
molar heat capacity
8,517 J/(mol K)
Specifični toplinski kapacitet
0,709 J/(g⋅K)
heat capacity ratio
electrical properties
typeConductor
electrical conductivity
0,1 MS/m
Električna otpornost i provodnost
0,00001 m Ω
Supravodljivost
Magnetizam
typediamagnetic
Magnetna susceptibilnost (Mass)
−0,0000000062 m³/Kg
Magnetna susceptibilnost (Molar)
−0,0000000000745 m³/mol
Magnetna susceptibilnost (Volume)
−0,000014
magnetic ordering
Curieva temperatura
Néel temperature
struktura
Kristalna strukturaJednostavna heksagonska (DIA)
lattice constant
3,57 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, 2 π/3
mechanical property
Tvrdoća
0,5 MPa
bulk modulus
33 GPa
shear modulus
Youngov modul elastičnosti
Poissonov omjer
brzina zvuka
18.350 m/s
classification
KategorijaOstali nemetali, Nonmetals
CAS GroupIVB
IUPAC GroupIVA
Glawe Number87
Mendeleev Number87
Pettifor Number95
Geochemical Classsemi-volatile
Goldschmidt classificationatmophile

other

Gas Basicity
polarizability
11,3 ± 0,2 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
46,6 a₀
allotropeGraphite, Diamond, Amorphous Carbon, Lonsdaleite, Fullerene, Carbon Nanotube, Graphene
Nuklearni udarni presjek
0,0035
Neutron Mass Absorption
0,000015
Kvantni brojevi3P0
space group194 (P63/mmc)

Isotopes of Carbon

Stabilni izotopi2
Nestabilni izotopi14
Natural Isotopes2
Isotopic Composition1298.94%1298.94%131.06%131.06%

8C

Maseni broj8
neutron number2
Relativna atomska masa
8,037643039 ± 0,000019584 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
3,5 ± 1,4 zs
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma1974
Parnost+

decay modeintensity
2p (2-proton emission)100%

9C

Maseni broj9
neutron number3
Relativna atomska masa
9,031037202 ± 0,000002293 Da
g-factor
0,9276 ± 0,00033333333333333
natural abundance
radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
126,5 ± 0,9 ms
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma1964
Parnost-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)7.5%
β+α (β+-delayed α emission)38.4%

10C

Maseni broj10
neutron number4
Relativna atomska masa
10,016853217 ± 0,000000075 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
19,3011 ± 0,0015 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma1949
Parnost+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

11C

Maseni broj11
neutron number5
Relativna atomska masa
11,011432597 ± 0,000000064 Da
g-factor
−0,64266666666667 ± 0,00066666666666667
natural abundance
radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
20,3402 ± 0,0053 m
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0,0333 ± 0,0002
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma1934
Parnost-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

12C

Maseni broj12
neutron number6
Relativna atomska masa
12 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
98,94 ± 0,06
radioaktivnoststable isotope
Vrijeme poluraspadaNot Radioactive ☢️
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma1919
Parnost+

13C

Maseni broj13
neutron number7
Relativna atomska masa
13,00335483534 ± 0,00000000025 Da
g-factor
1,404738 ± 0,000008
natural abundance
1,06 ± 0,06
radioaktivnoststable isotope
Vrijeme poluraspadaNot Radioactive ☢️
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma1929
Parnost-

14C

Maseni broj14
neutron number8
Relativna atomska masa
14,00324198862 ± 0,00000000403 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
5,7 ± 0,03 ky
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma1936
Parnost+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

15C

Maseni broj15
neutron number9
Relativna atomska masa
15,010599256 ± 0,000000858 Da
g-factor
3,44 ± 0,018
natural abundance
radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
2,449 ± 0,005 s
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma1950
Parnost+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

16C

Maseni broj16
neutron number10
Relativna atomska masa
16,014701255 ± 0,00000384 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
750 ± 6 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma1961
Parnost+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)99%

17C

Maseni broj17
neutron number11
Relativna atomska masa
17,02257865 ± 0,000018641 Da
g-factor
0,50533333333333 ± 0,0026666666666667
natural abundance
radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
193 ± 6 ms
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma1968
Parnost+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)28.4%
2n (2-neutron emission)

18C

Maseni broj18
neutron number12
Relativna atomska masa
18,02675193 ± 0,000032206 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
92 ± 2 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma1969
Parnost+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)31.5%
2n (2-neutron emission)

19C

Maseni broj19
neutron number13
Relativna atomska masa
19,034797594 ± 0,000105625 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
46,2 ± 2,3 ms
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma1974
Parnost+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)47%
2n (2-neutron emission)7%

20C

Maseni broj20
neutron number14
Relativna atomska masa
20,040261732 ± 0,000247585 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
16 ± 3 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma1981
Parnost+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)70%
2n (2-neutron emission)18.6%

21C

Maseni broj21
neutron number15
Relativna atomska masa
21,049 ± 0,00064 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma
Parnost+

decay modeintensity
n (neutron emission)

22C

Maseni broj22
neutron number16
Relativna atomska masa
22,05755399 ± 0,000248515 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
6,2 ± 1,3 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma1986
Parnost+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)61%
2n (2-neutron emission)37%

23C

Maseni broj23
neutron number17
Relativna atomska masa
23,06889 ± 0,00107 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma
Parnost+

decay modeintensity
n (neutron emission)
Coal anthracite
Electron shell 006 Carbon

povijest

otkrio/izumioKnown to the ancients
location of discovery
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma
EtimologijaLatin: carbo, (charcoal).
pronunciationKAR-ben (engleski)

source

Obilnost
Zastupljenost u Zemljinoj kori
200 mg/kg
natural abundance (ocean)
28 mg/L
natural abundance (tijelo)
23 %
natural abundance (meteoroid)
1,5 %
natural abundance (Sunce)
0,3 %
Zastupljenost u svemiru
0,5 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s0.3273
2p2.8642
2s2.7834