Cobalt

Cobalt (Co)

Cobalt is the 27th element in the periodic table and has a symbol of Co and atomic number of 27. It has an atomic weight of 58.93319 and a mass number of 59. Cobalt has twenty-seven protons and thirty-two neutrons in its nucleus, and twenty-seven electrons in four shells. It is located in group nine, period four and block d of the periodic table. Light grey transition element. Some meteorites contain small amounts of metallic cobalt. Generally alloyed for use. Mammals require small amounts of cobalt salts. Cobalt-60, an artificially produced radioactive isotope of Cobalt is an important radioactive tracer and cancer-treatment agent. Discovered by G. Brandt in 1737.
Atomic Number27
Atomic Weight58.933194
Mass Number59
Group9
Period4
Blockd
Protons27 p+
Neutrons32 n0
Electrons27 e-
Animated Bohr Model of Co (Cobalt)

Physical Properties

Atomic Radius
135 pm
Molar Volume
Covalent Radius
111 pm
Metallic Radius
116 pm
Ionic Radius
58 pm
Crystal Radius
72 pm
Van der Waals Radius
200 pm
Density
8.86 g/cm³
Atomic Radii of the Elements: Cobalt0102030405060708090100110120130140150160170180190200pmAtomic RadiusCovalent RadiusMetallic RadiusVan der Waals Radius

Chemical Properties

Energy
Proton Affinity
742.7 kJ/mol
Electron Affinity
0.66225646 eV/particle
Ionization Energy
7.88101 eV/particle
Ionization Energies of Co (Cobalt)
Heat of Vaporization
389.1 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
15.48 kJ/mol
Heat of Formation
426.7 kJ/mol
Electrons
Electron Shells2, 8, 15, 2
Bohr Model: Co (Cobalt)
Valence Electrons2
Lewis Structure: Co (Cobalt)
Electron Configuration[Ar] 3d7 4s2
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d7 4s2
Enhanced Bohr Model of Co (Cobalt)
Orbital Diagram of Co (Cobalt)
Oxidation States-3, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Electronegativity
1.88
Electrophilicity Index
1.2638504937543713 eV/particle
States of Matter
PhaseSolid
Gas Phase
Boiling Point
3,200.15 K
Melting Point
1,768.15 K
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
Triple Point
Visual

Cobalt is a Gray. Co has a CPK of #ff1493, Jmol of #f090a0, and MOLCAS GV of #f090a0. The Appearance of Element 27 is hard lustrous gray metal.

Color
Gray
Appearancehard lustrous gray metal
Refractive Index
Thermodynamic Properties
Thermal Conductivity
Thermal Expansion
0.000013 1/K
Molar Heat Capacity
24.81 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.421 J/(g⋅K)
Heat Capacity Ratio (Adiabatic Index)
Electrical Properties
TypeConductor
Electrical Conductivity
17 MS/m
Electrical Resistivity
0.00000006000000000002 m Ω
Superconducting Point
Magnetism
Typeferromagnetic
Magnetic Susceptibility (Mass)
Magnetic Susceptibility (Molar)
Magnetic Susceptibility (Volume)
Magnetic Ordering
Curie Point
1,394 K
Neel Point
Structure

The Crystal Structure of Cobalt is HEX. The lattice constant of Co is 2.51 Å. The lattice angles of Element 27 are π/2, π/2, 2 π/3.

Crystal StructureSimple Hexagonal (HEX)
Lattice Constant
2.51 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, 2 π/3
Mechanical Properties

Cobalt has a Brinell of 700 MPa, Mohs hardness of 5 MPa, and Vickers of 1043 MPa. The Bulk Modulus of Co is 180 GPa. The Shear Modulus of Element 27 is 75 GPa. The Young Modulus of Cobalt (Co) is 209 GPa. The Poisson Ratio of Cobalt is 0.31. The Speed of Sound of Co is 4720 m/s.

Hardness
5 MPa
Bulk Modulus
180 GPa
Shear Modulus
75 GPa
Young's Modulus
209 GPa
Poisson Ratio
0.31
Speed of Sound
4,720 m/s
Classification

The CAS Group of Cobalt is VIIIA. The IUPAC Group of Co is VIII. The Glawe Number of Element 27 is 70. The Mendeleev Number of Cobalt (Co) is 63. The Pettifor Number of Cobalt is 64. The Geochemical Class of Co is first series transition metal. The Goldschmidt Class of Element 27 is siderophile.

CategoryTransition metals, Transition metals
CAS GroupVIIIA
IUPAC GroupVIII
Glawe Number70
Mendeleev Number63
Pettifor Number64
Geochemical Classfirst series transition metal
Goldschmidt Classsiderophile

Other

The Gas Basicity of Cobalt is 719.8 kJ/mol. The Dipole Polarizability of Co is 55 plus or minus 4 a₀. Element 27 has a C6 Dispersion Coefficient (CD) of 408 a₀, and C6 Dispersion Coefficient (GB) of 461 a₀. The Allotropes of Cobalt (Co) is . The Neutron Cross Section of Cobalt is 37.2. The Neutron Mass Absorption of Co is 0.021. The Quantum Numbers of Element 27 is 4F9/2. The Space Group of Cobalt (Co) is 194 (P63/mmc).

Gas Basicity
719.8 kJ/mol
Dipole Polarizability
55 ± 4 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
408 a₀
Allotropes
Neutron Cross Section
37.2
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.021
Quantum Numbers4F9/2
Space Group194 (P63/mmc)

Isotopes of Cobalt

Stable Isotopes1
Unstable Isotopes31
Natural Isotopes1

47Co

Mass Number47
Neutron Number20
Relative Atomic Mass
47.011401 ± 0.000644 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
p (proton emission)

48Co

Mass Number48
Neutron Number21
Relative Atomic Mass
48.001857 ± 0.000537 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin6
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
p (proton emission)

49Co

Mass Number49
Neutron Number22
Relative Atomic Mass
48.989501 ± 0.000537 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
p (proton emission)

50Co

Mass Number50
Neutron Number23
Relative Atomic Mass
49.981117 ± 0.000135 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
38.8 ± 0.2 ms
Spin6
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1987
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)70.5%
2p (2-proton emission)

51Co

Mass Number51
Neutron Number24
Relative Atomic Mass
50.970647 ± 0.000052 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
68.8 ± 1.9 ms
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1987
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)3.8%

52Co

Mass Number52
Neutron Number25
Relative Atomic Mass
51.963130224 ± 0.000005669 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
111.7 ± 2.1 ms
Spin6
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1987
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

53Co

Mass Number53
Neutron Number26
Relative Atomic Mass
52.954203278 ± 0.000001854 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
244.6 ± 2.8 ms
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1970
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

54Co

Mass Number54
Neutron Number27
Relative Atomic Mass
53.948459075 ± 0.00000038 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
193.27 ± 0.06 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1952
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

55Co

Mass Number55
Neutron Number28
Relative Atomic Mass
54.941996416 ± 0.000000434 Da
G-Factor
1.3777142857143 ± 0.00085714285714286
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
17.53 ± 0.03 h
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1938
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

56Co

Mass Number56
Neutron Number29
Relative Atomic Mass
55.939838032 ± 0.00000051 Da
G-Factor
0.9625 ± 0.0025
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
77.236 ± 0.026 d
Spin4
Quadrupole Moment
0.25 ± 0.09
Discovery Year1941
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

57Co

Mass Number57
Neutron Number30
Relative Atomic Mass
56.936289819 ± 0.000000553 Da
G-Factor
1.3485714285714 ± 0.0028571428571429
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
271.811 ± 0.032 d
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.54 ± 0.1
Discovery Year1941
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

58Co

Mass Number58
Neutron Number31
Relative Atomic Mass
57.935751292 ± 0.000001237 Da
G-Factor
2.022 ± 0.004
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
70.844 ± 0.02 d
Spin2
Quadrupole Moment
0.23 ± 0.03
Discovery Year1941
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
e+ (positron emission)14.79%
ϵ (electron capture)85.21%

59Co

Mass Number59
Neutron Number32
Relative Atomic Mass
58.933193524 ± 0.000000426 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
100
RadioactivityStable
Half LifeNot Radioactive ☢️
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.42 ± 0.03
Discovery Year1923
Parity-

60Co

Mass Number60
Neutron Number33
Relative Atomic Mass
59.933815536 ± 0.000000433 Da
G-Factor
0.7598 ± 0.0016
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
5.2714 ± 0.0006 y
Spin5
Quadrupole Moment
0.46 ± 0.06
Discovery Year1941
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

61Co

Mass Number61
Neutron Number34
Relative Atomic Mass
60.932476031 ± 0.000000901 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
1.649 ± 0.005 h
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1947
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

62Co

Mass Number62
Neutron Number35
Relative Atomic Mass
61.934058198 ± 0.00001994 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
1.54 ± 0.1 m
Spin2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1949
Parity

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

63Co

Mass Number63
Neutron Number36
Relative Atomic Mass
62.93359963 ± 0.000019941 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
26.9 ± 0.4 s
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1960
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

64Co

Mass Number64
Neutron Number37
Relative Atomic Mass
63.935810176 ± 0.000021476 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
300 ± 30 ms
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1969
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

65Co

Mass Number65
Neutron Number38
Relative Atomic Mass
64.936462071 ± 0.000002235 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
1.16 ± 0.03 s
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1978
Parity

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

66Co

Mass Number66
Neutron Number39
Relative Atomic Mass
65.939442943 ± 0.000015 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
194 ± 17 ms
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1985
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

67Co

Mass Number67
Neutron Number40
Relative Atomic Mass
66.940609625 ± 0.000006917 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
329 ± 28 ms
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1985
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

68Co

Mass Number68
Neutron Number41
Relative Atomic Mass
67.944559401 ± 0.000004142 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
200 ± 20 ms
Spin7
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1985
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

69Co

Mass Number69
Neutron Number42
Relative Atomic Mass
68.945909 ± 0.000092 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
180 ± 20 ms
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1985
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

70Co

Mass Number70
Neutron Number43
Relative Atomic Mass
69.9500534 ± 0.0000118 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
508 ± 7 ms
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1998
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

71Co

Mass Number71
Neutron Number44
Relative Atomic Mass
70.952366923 ± 0.00049923 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
80 ± 3 ms
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1992
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)3%

72Co

Mass Number72
Neutron Number45
Relative Atomic Mass
71.956736 ± 0.000322 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
51.5 ± 0.3 ms
Spin6
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1992
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)4%
2n (2-neutron emission)

73Co

Mass Number73
Neutron Number46
Relative Atomic Mass
72.959238 ± 0.000322 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
42 ± 0.8 ms
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1995
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)6%
2n (2-neutron emission)

74Co

Mass Number74
Neutron Number47
Relative Atomic Mass
73.963993 ± 0.000429 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
31.3 ± 1.3 ms
Spin7
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1995
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)18%
2n (2-neutron emission)

75Co

Mass Number75
Neutron Number48
Relative Atomic Mass
74.967192 ± 0.000429 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
26.5 ± 1.2 ms
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1995
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)16%
2n (2-neutron emission)

76Co

Mass Number76
Neutron Number49
Relative Atomic Mass
75.972453 ± 0.000537 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
23 ± 6 ms
Spin8
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2010
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

77Co

Mass Number77
Neutron Number50
Relative Atomic Mass
76.976479 ± 0.000644 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
15 ± 6 ms
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2014
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)
3n (3-neutron emission)

78Co

Mass Number78
Neutron Number51
Relative Atomic Mass
77.983553 ± 0.000751 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2017
Parity

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)
Kobalt electrolytic and 1cm3 cube

History

Cobalt compounds have been used for centuries to impart a rich blue color to glass, glazes and ceramics. The element was first isolated by Swedish chemist George Brandt in 1735. He showed it was the presence of the element cobalt that caused the blue color in glass, not bismuth as previously thought. From the German word Kobald, goblin or evil spirit; also from the Greek cobalos, mine

DiscoverersGeorge Brandt
Discovery LocationSweden
Discovery Year1739
Etymology (Name Origin)German: kobold (goblin).
PronunciationKO-bolt (English)
Cobalt and its compounds are considered to be slightly toxic
Supplemental colbalt is essential in sheep's diets to improve the wools quality

Uses

Cobalt is used in the preparation of magnetic, wear-resistant and high-strength alloys. Cobalt is widely used in batteries and in electroplating. Radioactive 60Co is used in the treatment of cancer. A solution of the chloride is used as a sympathetic ink. Used in many hard alloys; for magnets, ceramics and special glasses. Remains hard up to 982°C. Radioactive cobalt-60 is used in cancer therapy.

Sources

Occurs in compounds with arsenic, oxygen and sulfur as in cobaltine (CoAsS) and linneite (Co3S4). Pure cobalt is obtained as a byproduct of refining nickel, copper and iron.

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
Natural Abundance (Oceans)
0.00002 mg/L
Natural Abundance (Human Body)
0.000002 %
Natural Abundance (Meteor)
0.059 %
Natural Abundance (Sun)
0.0004 %
Abundance in Universe
0.0003 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s0.6332
2p3.9076
2s7.595
3d15.1446
3p13.5654
3s12.6777
4s21.4236

Also Known As

  • Co
  • 27Co
  • element 27

Translations

  • Italiancobalto
  • Norwegian Bokmålkobolt
  • GermanCobalt
  • Frenchcobalt
  • Dutchkobalt
  • Spanishcobalto
  • Chinese (Traditional)
  • Afrikaanskobalt
  • Amharicኮባልት
  • AragoneseCobol
  • Arabicكوبالت
  • AsturianCobaltu
  • AzerbaijaniKobalt
  • BelarusianКобальт
  • Bulgarianкобалт
  • Banglaকোবাল্ট
  • BretonKobalt
  • Bosniankobalt
  • Catalancobalt
  • CorsicanCobaltu
  • Czechkobalt
  • ChuvashКобальт
  • WelshCobalt
  • Danishkobolt
  • Divehiކޮބާލްޓް
  • Greekκοβάλτιο
  • Esperantokobalto
  • EstonianKoobalt
  • Basquekobalto
  • Persianکبالت
  • Finnishkoboltti
  • FriulianCobalt
  • IrishCóbalt
  • GalicianCobalto
  • ManxCobalt
  • Hakka Chinesecobalt
  • Hebrewקובלט
  • Hindiकोबाल्ट
  • Fiji HindiCobalt
  • CroatianKobalt
  • Hungariankobalt
  • Armenianկոբալտ
  • Interlinguacobalt
  • Indonesiankobalt
  • Idokobalto
  • Icelandickóbolt
  • Japaneseコバルト
  • Lojbanridjinme
  • Georgianკობალტი
  • KazakhКобальт
  • Kannadaಕೋಬಾಲ್ಟ್
  • Korean코발트
  • KurdishKobalt
  • KomiКобальт
  • Latincobaltum
  • LuxembourgishKobalt
  • LigurianCobalto
  • LithuanianKobaltas
  • Latviankobalts
  • Macedonianкобалт
  • Malayalamകൊബാൾട്ട്
  • Marathiकोबाल्ट
  • Western MariКобальт
  • MalayKobalt
  • Burmeseကိုဘော့
  • Low GermanKobalt
  • Norwegian Nynorskkobolt
  • NavajoBéésh Łibáhí
  • OccitanCobalt
  • Punjabiਕੋਬਾਲਟ
  • Polishkobalt
  • Western Panjabiکوبالٹ
  • Portuguesecobalto
  • QuechuaKubaltu
  • Romaniancobalt
  • Russianкобальт
  • Serbo-CroatianKobalt
  • Slovakkobalt
  • Sloveniankobalt
  • AlbanianKobalti
  • Serbianкобалт
  • Saterland FrisianCobalt
  • Swedishkobolt
  • SwahiliKobalti
  • Tamilகோபால்ட்
  • Teluguకోబాల్ట్
  • TajikКобалт
  • Thaiโคบอลต์
  • TagalogKobalto
  • TurkishKobalt
  • Uyghurكوبالت
  • Ukrainianкобальт
  • Urduکوبالٹ
  • UzbekKobalt
  • VepsKobal't
  • Vietnamesecoban
  • WarayCobalto
  • KalmykКобалтион
  • Yiddishקאבאלט
  • YorubaCobalt
  • Chinese
  • English (Canada)cobalt
  • English (United Kingdom)cobalt
  • Portuguese (Brazil)cobalto
  • Cantonese
  • CebuanoKobalto
  • Central Kurdishکۆبالت
  • Northern FrisianKobalt
  • Odiaକୋବାଲ୍‌ଟ
  • Gujaratiકોબાલ્ટ
  • TatarКобальт
  • Mongolianкобальт
  • PiedmonteseCobalt
  • Scotscobalt
  • Newariकोबाल्ट
  • ErzyaКобальт
  • Sinhalaකොබෝල්ට්
  • SomaliKobalti
  • Literary Chinese
  • Belarusian (Taraskievica orthography)Кобальт
  • Chinese (Hong Kong SAR China)
  • Chinese (Taiwan)
  • Chinese (China)
  • Chinese (Simplified)
  • AromanianCobaltu
  • Siciliancubbaltu
  • KyrgyzКобальт
  • cdo
  • LimburgishKobalt
  • Nepaliकोबल्ट
  • Sanskritकोबाल्ट
  • Maltesekobalt
  • LombardCobalto
  • Scottish GaelicCòbalt
  • Paliकोबाल्ट
  • Min Nan ChineseCobalt
  • azbکوبالت
  • Bhojpuriकोबाल्ट
  • Tibetanགོ་བྰལ་
  • SundaneseKobalt
  • WalloonCobal
  • oloKobal’tu
  • Lingua Franca Novacobalto
  • Wu Chinese
  • JavaneseKobalt
  • kbpKobalti
  • hywԿոբաղդ
  • SardinianCobaltu
  • Moroccan Arabicكوبالت
  • BashkirКобальт
  • Egyptian Arabicكوبالت
  • Pashtoکوبالټ
  • BikolKobalto
  • CornishKobalt
  • KotavaJil
  • BalineseKobalt
  • MalagasyKôbalta
  • Sindhiڪوبالٽ
  • blkကိုဘော့
  • ZuluUmConjambi