Germanium

Germanium (Ge)

Germanium is the 32nd element in the periodic table and has a symbol of Ge and atomic number of 32. It has an atomic weight of 72.630 and a mass number of 74. Germanium has thirty-two protons and forty-two neutrons in its nucleus, and thirty-two electrons in four shells. It is located in group fourteen, period four and block p of the periodic table. Lustrous hard metalloid element, belongs to group 14 of the periodic table. Forms a large number of organometallic compounds. Predicted by Mendeleev in 1871, it was actually found in 1886 by Winkler.
Atomic Number32
Atomic Weight72.63
Mass Number74
Group14
Period4
Blockp
Protons32 p+
Neutrons42 n0
Electrons32 e-
Animated Bohr Model of Ge (Germanium)

Physical Properties

Atomic Radius
125 pm
Molar Volume
Covalent Radius
121 pm
Metallic Radius
124 pm
Ionic Radius
73 pm
Crystal Radius
87 pm
Van der Waals Radius
211 pm
Density
5.3234 g/cm³
Atomic Radii of the Elements: Germanium020406080100120140160180200220pmAtomic RadiusCovalent RadiusMetallic RadiusVan der Waals Radius

Chemical Properties

Energy
Proton Affinity
Electron Affinity
1.232712 eV/particle
Ionization Energy
7.899435 eV/particle
Ionization Energies of Ge (Germanium)
Heat of Vaporization
328 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
36.8 kJ/mol
Heat of Formation
372 kJ/mol
Electrons
Electron Shells2, 8, 18, 4
Bohr Model: Ge (Germanium)
Valence Electrons4
Lewis Structure: Ge (Germanium)
Electron Configuration[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p2
Enhanced Bohr Model of Ge (Germanium)
Orbital Diagram of Ge (Germanium)
Oxidation States-4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4
Electronegativity
2.01
Electrophilicity Index
1.5636638275958255 eV/particle
States of Matter
PhaseSolid
Gas Phase
Boiling Point
3,106.15 K
Melting Point
1,211.4 K
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
9,802.15 K
Triple Point
Visual

Germanium is a Gray. Ge has a CPK of #ff1493, Jmol of #668f8f, and MOLCAS GV of #668f8f. The Appearance of Element 32 is grayish-white.

Color
Gray
Appearancegrayish-white
Refractive Index
Thermodynamic Properties
Thermal Conductivity
60.2 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion
0.000006 1/K
Molar Heat Capacity
23.222 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
Heat Capacity Ratio (Adiabatic Index)
Electrical Properties
TypeSemiconductor
Electrical Conductivity
0.002 MS/m
Electrical Resistivity
0.0005 m Ω
Superconducting Point
Magnetism
Typediamagnetic
Magnetic Susceptibility (Mass)
-0.0000000015 m³/Kg
Magnetic Susceptibility (Molar)
-0.000000000109 m³/mol
Magnetic Susceptibility (Volume)
-0.00000798
Magnetic Ordering
Curie Point
Neel Point
Structure

The Crystal Structure of Germanium is DIA. The lattice constant of Ge is 5.66 Å. The lattice angles of Element 32 are π/2, π/2, π/2.

Crystal StructureFace Centered Cubic (DIA)
Lattice Constant
5.66 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, π/2
Mechanical Properties

Germanium has a Mohs hardness of 6 MPa. The Speed of Sound of Ge is 5400 m/s.

Hardness
6 MPa
Bulk Modulus
Shear Modulus
Young's Modulus
Poisson Ratio
Speed of Sound
5,400 m/s
Classification

The CAS Group of Germanium is IVB. The IUPAC Group of Ge is IVA. The Glawe Number of Element 32 is 84. The Mendeleev Number of Germanium (Ge) is 89. The Pettifor Number of Germanium is 84. The Goldschmidt Class of Ge is chalcophile.

CategoryMetalloids, Metalloids
CAS GroupIVB
IUPAC GroupIVA
Glawe Number84
Mendeleev Number89
Pettifor Number84
Geochemical Class
Goldschmidt Classchalcophile

Other

The Dipole Polarizability of Germanium is 40 plus or minus 1 a₀. Ge has a C6 Dispersion Coefficient (CD) of 354 a₀, and C6 Dispersion Coefficient (GB) of 365 a₀. The Allotropes of Element 32 is . The Neutron Cross Section of Germanium (Ge) is 2.2. The Neutron Mass Absorption of Germanium is 0.0011. The Quantum Numbers of Ge is 3P0. The Space Group of Element 32 is 225 (Fm_3m).

Gas Basicity
Dipole Polarizability
40 ± 1 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
354 a₀
Allotropes
Neutron Cross Section
2.2
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.0011
Quantum Numbers3P0
Space Group225 (Fm_3m)

Isotopes of Germanium

Stable Isotopes4
Unstable Isotopes29
Natural Isotopes5
Isotopic Composition7436.52%7436.52%7227.45%7227.45%7020.52%7020.52%737.76%737.76%767.75%767.75%

58Ge

Mass Number58
Neutron Number26
Relative Atomic Mass
57.991863 ± 0.000537 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
2p (2-proton emission)

59Ge

Mass Number59
Neutron Number27
Relative Atomic Mass
58.982426 ± 0.000429 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
13.3 ± 1.7 ms
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2015
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)93%
2p (2-proton emission)0.2%

60Ge

Mass Number60
Neutron Number28
Relative Atomic Mass
59.970445 ± 0.000322 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
21 ± 6 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2005
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)100%
2p (2-proton emission)14%

61Ge

Mass Number61
Neutron Number29
Relative Atomic Mass
60.963725 ± 0.000322 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
40.7 ± 0.4 ms
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1987
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)87%

62Ge

Mass Number62
Neutron Number30
Relative Atomic Mass
61.954761 ± 0.00015 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
82.5 ± 1.4 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1991
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

63Ge

Mass Number63
Neutron Number31
Relative Atomic Mass
62.949628 ± 0.00004 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
153.6 ± 1.1 ms
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1991
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

64Ge

Mass Number64
Neutron Number32
Relative Atomic Mass
63.941689912 ± 0.000004 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
63.7 ± 2.5 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1972
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

65Ge

Mass Number65
Neutron Number33
Relative Atomic Mass
64.939368136 ± 0.000002323 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
30.9 ± 0.5 s
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1972
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)0.011%

66Ge

Mass Number66
Neutron Number34
Relative Atomic Mass
65.933862124 ± 0.000002577 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
2.26 ± 0.05 h
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1950
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

67Ge

Mass Number67
Neutron Number35
Relative Atomic Mass
66.932716999 ± 0.000004636 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
18.9 ± 0.3 m
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1950
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

68Ge

Mass Number68
Neutron Number36
Relative Atomic Mass
67.928095305 ± 0.000002014 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
271.05 ± 0.08 d
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1948
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

69Ge

Mass Number69
Neutron Number37
Relative Atomic Mass
68.927964467 ± 0.000001414 Da
G-Factor
0.294 ± 0.0028
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
39.05 ± 0.1 h
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.114 ± 0.007
Discovery Year1938
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

70Ge

Mass Number70
Neutron Number38
Relative Atomic Mass
69.924248542 ± 0.00000088 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
20.52 ± 0.19
RadioactivityStable
Half LifeNot Radioactive ☢️
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1923
Parity+

71Ge

Mass Number71
Neutron Number39
Relative Atomic Mass
70.92495212 ± 0.000000874 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
11.43 ± 0.03 d
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1941
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

72Ge

Mass Number72
Neutron Number40
Relative Atomic Mass
71.922075824 ± 0.000000081 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
27.45 ± 0.15
RadioactivityStable
Half LifeNot Radioactive ☢️
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1923
Parity+

73Ge

Mass Number73
Neutron Number41
Relative Atomic Mass
72.923458954 ± 0.000000061 Da
G-Factor
-0.19516444444444 ± 0.000011111111111111
Abundance
7.76 ± 0.08
RadioactivityStable
Half LifeNot Radioactive ☢️
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
-0.196 ± 0.001
Discovery Year1933
Parity+

74Ge

Mass Number74
Neutron Number42
Relative Atomic Mass
73.92117776 ± 0.000000013 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
36.52 ± 0.12
RadioactivityStable
Half LifeNot Radioactive ☢️
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1923
Parity+

75Ge

Mass Number75
Neutron Number43
Relative Atomic Mass
74.92285837 ± 0.000000055 Da
G-Factor
1.018 ± 0.01
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
82.78 ± 0.04 m
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1939
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

76Ge

Mass Number76
Neutron Number44
Relative Atomic Mass
75.921402725 ± 0.000000019 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
7.75 ± 0.12
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
1.88 ± 0.08 Zy
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1933
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
(double β decay)100%

77Ge

Mass Number77
Neutron Number45
Relative Atomic Mass
76.923549843 ± 0.000000056 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
11.211 ± 0.003 h
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1939
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

78Ge

Mass Number78
Neutron Number46
Relative Atomic Mass
77.922852911 ± 0.000003795 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
88 ± 1 m
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1953
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

79Ge

Mass Number79
Neutron Number47
Relative Atomic Mass
78.925359506 ± 0.000039893 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
18.98 ± 0.03 s
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1970
Parity

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

80Ge

Mass Number80
Neutron Number48
Relative Atomic Mass
79.925350773 ± 0.000002205 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
29.5 ± 0.4 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1972
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

81Ge

Mass Number81
Neutron Number49
Relative Atomic Mass
80.928832941 ± 0.000002205 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
9 ± 2 s
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1972
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

82Ge

Mass Number82
Neutron Number50
Relative Atomic Mass
81.929774031 ± 0.000002405 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
4.31 ± 0.19 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1972
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

83Ge

Mass Number83
Neutron Number51
Relative Atomic Mass
82.9345391 ± 0.000002604 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
1.85 ± 0.06 s
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1972
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

84Ge

Mass Number84
Neutron Number52
Relative Atomic Mass
83.93757509 ± 0.000003403 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
951 ± 9 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1972
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)10.6%

85Ge

Mass Number85
Neutron Number53
Relative Atomic Mass
84.942969658 ± 0.000004003 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
495 ± 5 ms
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1991
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)17.2%
2n (2-neutron emission)

86Ge

Mass Number86
Neutron Number54
Relative Atomic Mass
85.946967 ± 0.00047 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
221.6 ± 11 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1994
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)45%

87Ge

Mass Number87
Neutron Number55
Relative Atomic Mass
86.953204 ± 0.000322 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
103 ± 4 ms
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1997
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

88Ge

Mass Number88
Neutron Number56
Relative Atomic Mass
87.957574 ± 0.000429 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
61 ± 6 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1997
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

89Ge

Mass Number89
Neutron Number57
Relative Atomic Mass
88.96453 ± 0.000429 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1997
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

90Ge

Mass Number90
Neutron Number58
Relative Atomic Mass
89.969436 ± 0.000537 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2010
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)
Germanium element

History

In 1869, Dmitri Mendeleev predicted its existence and some of its properties based on its position on his periodic table and called the element eka-silicon. In 1886, Clemens Winkler found the new element along with silver and sulfur, in a rare mineral called argyrodite. The first silicon-germanium alloys were obtained in 1955. From the Latin word Germania, Germany

DiscoverersClemens Winkler
Discovery LocationGermany
Discovery Year1886
Etymology (Name Origin)Latin: Germania (Germany).
Pronunciationjer-MAY-ni-em (English)
Germanium is not known to be toxic
Germanium and the oxide are transparent to infrared radiation

Uses

The most common use of germanium is as a semiconductor in electronics. Germanium is used in transistors and in integrated circuits. It is used as an alloying agent and as a catalyst. It is also used in infrared spectroscopes and infrared detectors. Widely used in semiconductors. It is a good semiconductor when combined with tiny amounts of phosphorus, arsenic, gallium, and antimony.

Sources

Obtained from refining copper, zinc and lead.

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
1.5 mg/kg
Natural Abundance (Oceans)
0.00005 mg/L
Natural Abundance (Human Body)
Natural Abundance (Meteor)
0.0021 %
Natural Abundance (Sun)
0.00002 %
Abundance in Universe
0.00002 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s0.7063
2p3.9178
2s8.6352
3d15.7487
3p14.9864
3s14.2103
4p25.2196
4s23.9564

Also Known As

  • Ge
  • element 32
  • 32Ge

Translations

  • Norwegian Bokmålgermanium
  • Russianгерманий
  • Frenchgermanium
  • Italiangermanio
  • GermanGermanium
  • Dutchgermanium
  • Spanishgermanio
  • Hungariangermánium
  • Afrikaansgermanium
  • Amharicጀርማኒየም
  • AragoneseChermanio
  • Arabicجرمانيوم
  • AzerbaijaniGermanium
  • BelarusianГерманій
  • Bulgarianгерманий
  • Banglaজার্মেনিয়াম
  • BretonGermaniom
  • Bosniangermanij
  • Catalangermani
  • CorsicanGermaniu
  • Czechgermanium
  • ChuvashГермани
  • WelshGermaniwm
  • Danishgermanium
  • Greekγερμάνιο
  • Esperantogermaniumo
  • EstonianGermaanium
  • Basquegermanio
  • Persianژرمانیم
  • Finnishgermanium
  • FriulianGjermani
  • Irishgearmáiniam
  • Galicianxermanio
  • Manxgermaanium
  • Hakka Chinesegermanium
  • Hebrewגרמניום
  • Hindiजर्मेनियम
  • Fiji HindiGermanium
  • CroatianGermanij
  • Haitian CreoleJèmanyòm
  • Armenianգերմանիում
  • Interlinguagermanium
  • Indonesiangermanium
  • Idogermanio
  • Icelandicgerman
  • Japaneseゲルマニウム
  • Lojbandotyjinme
  • JavaneseGermanium
  • Georgianგერმანიუმი
  • Korean저마늄
  • KurdishGermanyûm
  • KomiГерманий
  • Latingermanium
  • LuxembourgishGermanium
  • LigurianGermanio
  • LithuanianGermanis
  • Latviangermānijs
  • Malayalamജെർമേനിയം
  • Mongolianгермани
  • Marathiजर्मेनियम
  • Western MariГерманий
  • MalayGermanium
  • Low GermanGermanium
  • Norwegian Nynorskgermanium
  • OccitanGermani
  • Punjabiਜਰਮੇਨੀਅਮ
  • Polishgerman
  • Western Panjabiجرمینیم
  • Portuguesegermânio
  • QuechuaGermanyu
  • Romaniangermaniu
  • Siciliangirmaniu
  • Serbo-CroatianGermanijum
  • SlovakGermánium
  • SlovenianGermanij
  • AlbanianGermaniumi
  • Serbianгерманијум
  • Saterland FrisianGermanium
  • Swedishgermanium
  • SwahiliGerimani
  • Tamilஜேர்மானியம்
  • Teluguజెర్మేనియం
  • Thaiเจอร์เมเนียม
  • TurkishGermanyum
  • Uyghurگېرمانىي
  • Ukrainianгерманій
  • Urduجرمانیئم
  • UzbekGermaniy
  • VepsGermanii
  • Vietnamesegecmani
  • WarayGermanyo
  • KalmykГерманион
  • Yiddishגערמאניום
  • YorubaGermanium
  • Chinese
  • CebuanoGermanio
  • Central Kurdishجێرمانیۆم
  • MacedonianГерманиум
  • KazakhГерманий
  • Northern FrisianGermanium
  • Gujaratiજર્મેનિયમ
  • Odiaଜର୍ମାନିଅମ
  • TatarГерманий
  • PiedmonteseGermani
  • Scotsgermanium
  • SomaliJermaaniyaam
  • Newariजर्मेनियम
  • Cantonese
  • Min Nan ChineseGermanium
  • Literary Chinese
  • Belarusian (Taraskievica orthography)герман
  • Chinese (China)
  • Chinese (Simplified)
  • Chinese (Traditional)
  • Chinese (Hong Kong SAR China)
  • Chinese (Taiwan)
  • AromanianGermaniu
  • Nepaliजर्मेनियम
  • KyrgyzГерманий
  • LimburgishGermanium
  • FaroeseGermanium
  • Portuguese (Brazil)germânio
  • Sanskritजर्मेनियम
  • Malteseġermanju
  • LombardGermànio
  • AsturianXermaniu
  • Scottish GaelicGearmainium
  • Paliजर्मेनियम
  • TajikГерманий
  • cdoGermanium
  • Bhojpuriजर्मेनियम
  • azbژرمانیوم
  • Tibetanའཇར་མི་ནིམ།
  • SundaneseGérmanium
  • Kannadaಜರ್ಮೇನಿಯಮ್
  • Lingua Franca Novagermanio
  • Wu Chinese
  • Burmeseဂျာမန်နီယံ
  • kbpZɛrɩmanɩyɔm
  • TagalogHermaniyo
  • oloGermanium
  • SardinianGermàniu
  • BashkirГерманий
  • Moroccan Arabicجيرمانيوم
  • Pashtoجرمانيوم
  • Egyptian Arabicجرمانيوم
  • BikolHermaniyo
  • CornishGermaniom
  • BalineseGérmanium
  • MalagasyZermaniôma
  • blkဇျာမေနီယမ်