Germanium

Germanium (Ge)

chemical element with symbol Ge and atomic number 32
Atomic Number32
Atomic Weight72.63
Massagetal74
Group14
Period4
Blockp
proton32 p+
neutron42 n0
elektron32 e-
Animated Bohr model of Ge (Germanium)

Physical Property

Atoomradius
125 pm
molar volume
Covalent Radius
121 pm
Metallic Radius
124 pm
Ioonradius
73 pm
Crystal Radius
87 pm
Van der Waals radius
211 pm
density
5,3234 g/cm³
Atomic Radii Of The Elements: Germanium020406080100120140160180200220pmAtoomradiusCovalent RadiusMetallic RadiusVan der Waals radius

Chemical Property

energie
proton affinity
electron affinity
1,232712 eV/particle
ionization energy
7,899435 eV/particle
ionization energy of Ge (Germanium)
Verdampingswarmte
328 kJ/mol
smeltingswarmte
36,8 kJ/mol
Vormingsentalpie
372 kJ/mol
elektron
Elektronskil2, 8, 18, 4
Bohr model: Ge (Germanium)
Valenselektrone4
Lewisteorie: Ge (Germanium)
elektronkonfigurasie[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p2
Enhanced Bohr model of Ge (Germanium)
Orbital Diagram of Ge (Germanium)
Oksidasietoestand-4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4
Elektronegatiwiteit
2.01
Electrophilicity Index
1,5636638275958255 eV/particle
fundamental state of matter
phase of matterSolid
gaseous state of matter
Boiling Point
3 106,15 K
Melting Point
1 211,4 K
critical pressure
critical temperature
9 802,15 K
triple point
appearance
kleur
Gray
appearancegrayish-white
Brekingsindeks
thermodynamic material property
Thermal Conductivity
60,2 W/(m K)
thermal expansion
0,000006 1/K
molar heat capacity
23,222 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
heat capacity ratio
electrical properties
typeSemiconductor
Geleidingsvermoë
0,002 MS/m
Elektriese resistiwiteit
0,0005 m Ω
superconductivity
Magnetisme
typediamagnetic
magnetic susceptibility (Mass)
-0,0000000015 m³/Kg
magnetic susceptibility (Molar)
-0,000000000109 m³/mol
magnetic susceptibility (Volume)
-0,00000798
magnetic ordering
Curie temperature
Néel temperature
structure
Crystal StructureFace Centered Cubic (DIA)
lattice constant
5,66 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, π/2
mechanical property
hardness
6 MPa
Massamodulus
Skuifmodulus
Young se modulus
Poisson se verhouding
Spoed van klank
5 400 m/s
classification
CategoryMetalloids, Metalloids
CAS GroupIVB
IUPAC GroupIVA
Glawe Number84
Mendeleev Number89
Pettifor Number84
Geochemical Class
Goldschmidt classificationchalcophile

other

Gas Basicity
polarizability
40 ± 1 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
354 a₀
allotrope
Neutron cross section
2,2
Neutron Mass Absorption
0,0011
quantum number3P0
Ruimtegroep225 (Fm_3m)

Isotopes of Germanium

Stable Isotopes4
Unstable Isotopes29
Natural Isotopes5
Isotopic Composition7436.52%7436.52%7227.45%7227.45%7020.52%7020.52%737.76%737.76%767.75%767.75%

58Ge

Massagetal58
neutron number26
relative atomic mass
57,991863 ± 0,000537 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum
parity+

decay modeintensity
2p (2-proton emission)

59Ge

Massagetal59
neutron number27
relative atomic mass
58,982426 ± 0,000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
13,3 ± 1,7 ms
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum2015
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)93%
2p (2-proton emission)0.2%

60Ge

Massagetal60
neutron number28
relative atomic mass
59,970445 ± 0,000322 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
21 ± 6 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum2005
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)100%
2p (2-proton emission)14%

61Ge

Massagetal61
neutron number29
relative atomic mass
60,963725 ± 0,000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
40,7 ± 0,4 ms
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum1987
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)87%

62Ge

Massagetal62
neutron number30
relative atomic mass
61,954761 ± 0,00015 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
82,5 ± 1,4 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum1991
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

63Ge

Massagetal63
neutron number31
relative atomic mass
62,949628 ± 0,00004 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
153,6 ± 1,1 ms
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum1991
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

64Ge

Massagetal64
neutron number32
relative atomic mass
63,941689912 ± 0,000004 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
63,7 ± 2,5 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum1972
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

65Ge

Massagetal65
neutron number33
relative atomic mass
64,939368136 ± 0,000002323 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
30,9 ± 0,5 s
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum1972
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)0.011%

66Ge

Massagetal66
neutron number34
relative atomic mass
65,933862124 ± 0,000002577 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
2,26 ± 0,05 h
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum1950
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

67Ge

Massagetal67
neutron number35
relative atomic mass
66,932716999 ± 0,000004636 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
18,9 ± 0,3 m
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum1950
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

68Ge

Massagetal68
neutron number36
relative atomic mass
67,928095305 ± 0,000002014 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
271,05 ± 0,08 d
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum1948
parity+

decay modeintensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

69Ge

Massagetal69
neutron number37
relative atomic mass
68,927964467 ± 0,000001414 Da
g-factor
0,294 ± 0,0028
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
39,05 ± 0,1 h
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0,114 ± 0,007
ontdekkingsdatum1938
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

70Ge

Massagetal70
neutron number38
relative atomic mass
69,924248542 ± 0,00000088 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
20,52 ± 0,19
radioaktiwiteitStabiele isotoop
HalfleeftydNot Radioactive ☢️
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum1923
parity+

71Ge

Massagetal71
neutron number39
relative atomic mass
70,92495212 ± 0,000000874 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
11,43 ± 0,03 d
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum1941
parity-

decay modeintensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

72Ge

Massagetal72
neutron number40
relative atomic mass
71,922075824 ± 0,000000081 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
27,45 ± 0,15
radioaktiwiteitStabiele isotoop
HalfleeftydNot Radioactive ☢️
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum1923
parity+

73Ge

Massagetal73
neutron number41
relative atomic mass
72,923458954 ± 0,000000061 Da
g-factor
-0,19516444444444 ± 0,000011111111111111
natural abundance
7,76 ± 0,08
radioaktiwiteitStabiele isotoop
HalfleeftydNot Radioactive ☢️
spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
-0,196 ± 0,001
ontdekkingsdatum1933
parity+

74Ge

Massagetal74
neutron number42
relative atomic mass
73,92117776 ± 0,000000013 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
36,52 ± 0,12
radioaktiwiteitStabiele isotoop
HalfleeftydNot Radioactive ☢️
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum1923
parity+

75Ge

Massagetal75
neutron number43
relative atomic mass
74,92285837 ± 0,000000055 Da
g-factor
1,018 ± 0,01
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
82,78 ± 0,04 m
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum1939
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

76Ge

Massagetal76
neutron number44
relative atomic mass
75,921402725 ± 0,000000019 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
7,75 ± 0,12
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
1,88 ± 0,08 Zy
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum1933
parity+

decay modeintensity
(double β decay)100%

77Ge

Massagetal77
neutron number45
relative atomic mass
76,923549843 ± 0,000000056 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
11,211 ± 0,003 h
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum1939
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

78Ge

Massagetal78
neutron number46
relative atomic mass
77,922852911 ± 0,000003795 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
88 ± 1 m
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum1953
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

79Ge

Massagetal79
neutron number47
relative atomic mass
78,925359506 ± 0,000039893 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
18,98 ± 0,03 s
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum1970
parity

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

80Ge

Massagetal80
neutron number48
relative atomic mass
79,925350773 ± 0,000002205 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
29,5 ± 0,4 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum1972
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

81Ge

Massagetal81
neutron number49
relative atomic mass
80,928832941 ± 0,000002205 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
9 ± 2 s
spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum1972
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

82Ge

Massagetal82
neutron number50
relative atomic mass
81,929774031 ± 0,000002405 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
4,31 ± 0,19 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum1972
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

83Ge

Massagetal83
neutron number51
relative atomic mass
82,9345391 ± 0,000002604 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
1,85 ± 0,06 s
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum1972
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

84Ge

Massagetal84
neutron number52
relative atomic mass
83,93757509 ± 0,000003403 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
951 ± 9 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum1972
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)10.6%

85Ge

Massagetal85
neutron number53
relative atomic mass
84,942969658 ± 0,000004003 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
495 ± 5 ms
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum1991
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)17.2%
2n (2-neutron emission)

86Ge

Massagetal86
neutron number54
relative atomic mass
85,946967 ± 0,00047 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
221,6 ± 11 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum1994
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)45%

87Ge

Massagetal87
neutron number55
relative atomic mass
86,953204 ± 0,000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
103 ± 4 ms
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum1997
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

88Ge

Massagetal88
neutron number56
relative atomic mass
87,957574 ± 0,000429 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
61 ± 6 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum1997
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

89Ge

Massagetal89
neutron number57
relative atomic mass
88,96453 ± 0,000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum1997
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

90Ge

Massagetal90
neutron number58
relative atomic mass
89,969436 ± 0,000537 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum2010
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)
Germanium element

geskiedenis

Ontdek deurClemens Winkler
ligging van ontdekkingGermany
ontdekkingsdatum1886
etimologieLatin: Germania (Germany).
uitspraakjer-MAY-ni-em (Engels)

source

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
1,5 mg/kg
natural abundance (oseaan)
0,00005 mg/L
natural abundance (human body)
natural abundance (Meteoroïde)
0,0021 %
natural abundance (Son)
0,00002 %
Abundance in Universe
0,00002 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s0.7063
2p3.9178
2s8.6352
3d15.7487
3p14.9864
3s14.2103
4p25.2196
4s23.9564