Germanij[um]

Germanij[um] (Ge)

hemijski element sa simbolom Ge i atomskim brojem 32
Atomic Number32
Atomic Weight72.63
Maseni broj74
Group14
Period4
Blockp
Proton32 p+
Neutron42 n0
Elektron32 e-
Animated Bohrov model atoma of Ge (Germanij[um])

Physical Property

Atomski Radijus
125 pm
Molarni volumen
covalent radius
121 pm
Metallic Radius
124 pm
Ionski radijus
73 pm
Crystal Radius
87 pm
Van der Waalsov radijus
211 pm
gustoća
5,3234 g/cm³
Atomic Radii Of The Elements: Germanij[um]0102030405060708090100110120130140150160170180190200210220pmAtomski RadijusCovalent RadiusMetallic RadiusVan der Waalsov radijus

Chemical Property

energija
proton affinity
electron affinity
1,232712 eV/particle
ionization energy
7,899435 eV/particle
ionization energy of Ge (Germanij[um])
Toplota isparavanja
328 kJ/mol
toplota topljenja
36,8 kJ/mol
standard enthalpy of formation
372 kJ/mol
Elektron
electron shell2, 8, 18, 4
Bohrov model atoma: Ge (Germanij[um])
Valentni elektron4
Lewis structure: Ge (Germanij[um])
electron configuration[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p2
Enhanced Bohrov model atoma of Ge (Germanij[um])
Orbital Diagram of Ge (Germanij[um])
oksidacijsko stanje-4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4
Elektronegativnost
2.01
Electrophilicity Index
1,5636638275958255 eV/particle
fundamental state of matter
agregatno stanjeSolid
gaseous state of matter
Boiling Point
3.106,15 K
Melting Point
1.211,4 K
critical pressure
Kritična temperatura
9.802,15 K
Trojna tačka
appearance
boja
Gray
appearancegrayish-white
Indeks prelamanja
thermodynamic material property
Thermal Conductivity
60,2 W/(m K)
thermal expansion
0,000006 1/K
molar heat capacity
23,222 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
heat capacity ratio
electrical properties
typeSemiconductor
Specifična električna provodljivost
0,002 MS/m
electrical resistivity
0,0005 m Ω
Superprovodljivost
Magnetizam
typediamagnetic
magnetic susceptibility (Mass)
-0,0000000015 m³/Kg
magnetic susceptibility (Molar)
-0,000000000109 m³/mol
magnetic susceptibility (Volume)
-0,00000798
magnetic ordering
Kirijeva tačka
Néel temperature
struktura
Crystal StructureFace Centered Cubic (DIA)
lattice constant
5,66 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, π/2
mechanical property
Tvrdoća
6 MPa
bulk modulus
shear modulus
Young's modulus
Poisson's ratio
Brzina zvuka
5.400 m/s
klasifikacija
CategoryMetalloids, Metalloids
CAS GroupIVB
IUPAC GroupIVA
Glawe Number84
Mendeleev Number89
Pettifor Number84
Geochemical Class
Goldschmidt classificationchalcophile

other

Gas Basicity
polarizability
40 ± 1 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
354 a₀
allotrope
Neutron cross section
2,2
Neutron Mass Absorption
0,0011
Kvantni brojevi3P0
space group225 (Fm_3m)

Isotopes of Germanium

Stable Isotopes4
Unstable Isotopes29
Natural Isotopes5
Isotopic Composition7436.52%7436.52%7227.45%7227.45%7020.52%7020.52%737.76%737.76%767.75%767.75%

58Ge

Maseni broj58
broj neutrona26
relative atomic mass
57,991863 ± 0,000537 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića
parity+

decay modeintensity
2p (2-proton emission)

59Ge

Maseni broj59
broj neutrona27
relative atomic mass
58,982426 ± 0,000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
13,3 ± 1,7 ms
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića2015
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)93%
2p (2-proton emission)0.2%

60Ge

Maseni broj60
broj neutrona28
relative atomic mass
59,970445 ± 0,000322 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
21 ± 6 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića2005
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)100%
2p (2-proton emission)14%

61Ge

Maseni broj61
broj neutrona29
relative atomic mass
60,963725 ± 0,000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
40,7 ± 0,4 ms
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića1987
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)87%

62Ge

Maseni broj62
broj neutrona30
relative atomic mass
61,954761 ± 0,00015 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
82,5 ± 1,4 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1991
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

63Ge

Maseni broj63
broj neutrona31
relative atomic mass
62,949628 ± 0,00004 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
153,6 ± 1,1 ms
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića1991
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

64Ge

Maseni broj64
broj neutrona32
relative atomic mass
63,941689912 ± 0,000004 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
63,7 ± 2,5 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1972
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

65Ge

Maseni broj65
broj neutrona33
relative atomic mass
64,939368136 ± 0,000002323 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
30,9 ± 0,5 s
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića1972
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)0.011%

66Ge

Maseni broj66
broj neutrona34
relative atomic mass
65,933862124 ± 0,000002577 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
2,26 ± 0,05 h
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1950
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

67Ge

Maseni broj67
broj neutrona35
relative atomic mass
66,932716999 ± 0,000004636 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
18,9 ± 0,3 m
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1950
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

68Ge

Maseni broj68
broj neutrona36
relative atomic mass
67,928095305 ± 0,000002014 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
271,05 ± 0,08 d
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1948
parity+

decay modeintensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

69Ge

Maseni broj69
broj neutrona37
relative atomic mass
68,927964467 ± 0,000001414 Da
g-factor
0,294 ± 0,0028
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
39,05 ± 0,1 h
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0,114 ± 0,007
datum otkrića1938
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

70Ge

Maseni broj70
broj neutrona38
relative atomic mass
69,924248542 ± 0,00000088 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
20,52 ± 0,19
Radioaktivnoststable isotope
Vrijeme poluraspadaNot Radioactive ☢️
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1923
parity+

71Ge

Maseni broj71
broj neutrona39
relative atomic mass
70,92495212 ± 0,000000874 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
11,43 ± 0,03 d
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1941
parity-

decay modeintensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

72Ge

Maseni broj72
broj neutrona40
relative atomic mass
71,922075824 ± 0,000000081 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
27,45 ± 0,15
Radioaktivnoststable isotope
Vrijeme poluraspadaNot Radioactive ☢️
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1923
parity+

73Ge

Maseni broj73
broj neutrona41
relative atomic mass
72,923458954 ± 0,000000061 Da
g-factor
-0,19516444444444 ± 0,000011111111111111
natural abundance
7,76 ± 0,08
Radioaktivnoststable isotope
Vrijeme poluraspadaNot Radioactive ☢️
spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
-0,196 ± 0,001
datum otkrića1933
parity+

74Ge

Maseni broj74
broj neutrona42
relative atomic mass
73,92117776 ± 0,000000013 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
36,52 ± 0,12
Radioaktivnoststable isotope
Vrijeme poluraspadaNot Radioactive ☢️
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1923
parity+

75Ge

Maseni broj75
broj neutrona43
relative atomic mass
74,92285837 ± 0,000000055 Da
g-factor
1,018 ± 0,01
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
82,78 ± 0,04 m
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1939
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

76Ge

Maseni broj76
broj neutrona44
relative atomic mass
75,921402725 ± 0,000000019 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
7,75 ± 0,12
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
1,88 ± 0,08 Zy
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1933
parity+

decay modeintensity
(double β decay)100%

77Ge

Maseni broj77
broj neutrona45
relative atomic mass
76,923549843 ± 0,000000056 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
11,211 ± 0,003 h
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića1939
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

78Ge

Maseni broj78
broj neutrona46
relative atomic mass
77,922852911 ± 0,000003795 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
88 ± 1 m
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1953
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

79Ge

Maseni broj79
broj neutrona47
relative atomic mass
78,925359506 ± 0,000039893 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
18,98 ± 0,03 s
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1970
parity

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

80Ge

Maseni broj80
broj neutrona48
relative atomic mass
79,925350773 ± 0,000002205 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
29,5 ± 0,4 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1972
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

81Ge

Maseni broj81
broj neutrona49
relative atomic mass
80,928832941 ± 0,000002205 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
9 ± 2 s
spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića1972
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

82Ge

Maseni broj82
broj neutrona50
relative atomic mass
81,929774031 ± 0,000002405 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
4,31 ± 0,19 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1972
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

83Ge

Maseni broj83
broj neutrona51
relative atomic mass
82,9345391 ± 0,000002604 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
1,85 ± 0,06 s
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića1972
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

84Ge

Maseni broj84
broj neutrona52
relative atomic mass
83,93757509 ± 0,000003403 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
951 ± 9 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1972
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)10.6%

85Ge

Maseni broj85
broj neutrona53
relative atomic mass
84,942969658 ± 0,000004003 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
495 ± 5 ms
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića1991
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)17.2%
2n (2-neutron emission)

86Ge

Maseni broj86
broj neutrona54
relative atomic mass
85,946967 ± 0,00047 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
221,6 ± 11 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1994
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)45%

87Ge

Maseni broj87
broj neutrona55
relative atomic mass
86,953204 ± 0,000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
103 ± 4 ms
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića1997
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

88Ge

Maseni broj88
broj neutrona56
relative atomic mass
87,957574 ± 0,000429 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
61 ± 6 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1997
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

89Ge

Maseni broj89
broj neutrona57
relative atomic mass
88,96453 ± 0,000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića1997
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

90Ge

Maseni broj90
broj neutrona58
relative atomic mass
89,969436 ± 0,000537 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića2010
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)
Germanium element

historija

otkrivač ili izumiteljClemens Winkler
mjesto otkrićaGermany
datum otkrića1886
EtimologijaLatin: Germania (Germany).
pronunciationjer-MAY-ni-em (engleski)

izvor

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
1,5 mg/kg
natural abundance (okean)
0,00005 mg/L
natural abundance (ljudsko tijelo)
natural abundance (Meteoroidi)
0,0021 %
natural abundance (Sunce)
0,00002 %
Abundance in Universe
0,00002 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s0.7063
2p3.9178
2s8.6352
3d15.7487
3p14.9864
3s14.2103
4p25.2196
4s23.9564