Germani

Germani (Ge)

chemical element with symbol Ge and atomic number 32
Atomic Number32
Atomic Weight72.63
Rhif màs74
Group14
Period4
Blockp
Proton32 p+
Niwtron42 n0
Electron32 e-
Animated Bohr model of Ge (Germani)

Nodwedd Ffisegol

Atomic Radius
125 pm
molar volume
covalent radius
121 pm
Metallic Radius
124 pm
ionic radius
73 pm
Crystal Radius
87 pm
Van der Waals radius
211 pm
density
5.3234 g/cm³
Atomic Radii Of The Elements: Germani020406080100120140160180200220pmAtomic RadiusCovalent RadiusMetallic RadiusVan der Waals radius

Nodwedd Gemegol

egni
proton affinity
electron affinity
1.232712 eV/particle
ionization energy
7.899435 eV/particle
ionization energy of Ge (Germani)
enthalpy of vaporization
328 kJ/mol
enthalpy of fusion
36.8 kJ/mol
standard enthalpy of formation
372 kJ/mol
Electron
plisgyn yr electron2, 8, 18, 4
Bohr model: Ge (Germani)
valence electron4
Lewis structure: Ge (Germani)
trefn yr electronnau[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p2
Enhanced Bohr model of Ge (Germani)
Orbital Diagram of Ge (Germani)
Cyflwr ocsidiad-4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4
Electronegatifedd
2.01
Electrophilicity Index
1.5636638275958255 eV/particle
cyflwr sylfaenol mater
cyflwr materSolid
gaseous state of matter
Boiling Point
3,106.15 K
Melting Point
1,211.4 K
critical pressure
critical temperature
9,802.15 K
triple point
appearance
lliw
Gray
appearancegrayish-white
Mynegrif plygiant
nodwedd ffisegol gwrthrych
Thermal Conductivity
60.2 W/(m K)
thermal expansion
0.000006 1/K
molar heat capacity
23.222 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
heat capacity ratio
electrical properties
typeSemiconductor
dargludedd trydanol
0.002 MS/m
Gwrthedd
0.0005 m Ω
superconductivity
magnetism
typediamagnetic
magnetic susceptibility (Mass)
-0.0000000015 m³/Kg
magnetic susceptibility (Molar)
-0.000000000109 m³/mol
magnetic susceptibility (Volume)
-0.00000798
magnetic ordering
Curie temperature
Néel temperature
strwythur
Crystal StructureFace Centered Cubic (DIA)
lattice constant
5.66 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, π/2
nodwedd mecanyddol deunyddiau
hardness
6 MPa
bulk modulus
shear modulus
Young's modulus
Poisson's ratio
speed of sound
5,400 m/s
classification
CategoryMetalloids, Metalloids
CAS GroupIVB
IUPAC GroupIVA
Glawe Number84
Mendeleev Number89
Pettifor Number84
Geochemical Class
Goldschmidt classificationchalcophile

other

Gas Basicity
polarizability
40 ± 1 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
354 a₀
allotrope
Neutron cross section
2.2
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.0011
quantum number3P0
space group225 (Fm_3m)

Isotopes of Germanium

Stable Isotopes4
Unstable Isotopes29
Natural Isotopes5
Isotopic Composition7436.52%7436.52%7227.45%7227.45%7020.52%7020.52%737.76%737.76%767.75%767.75%

58Ge

Rhif màs58
neutron number26
relative atomic mass
57.991863 ± 0.000537 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod
parity+

decay modeintensity
2p (2-proton emission)

59Ge

Rhif màs59
neutron number27
relative atomic mass
58.982426 ± 0.000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
13.3 ± 1.7 ms
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
dyddiad darganfod2015
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)93%
2p (2-proton emission)0.2%

60Ge

Rhif màs60
neutron number28
relative atomic mass
59.970445 ± 0.000322 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
21 ± 6 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod2005
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)100%
2p (2-proton emission)14%

61Ge

Rhif màs61
neutron number29
relative atomic mass
60.963725 ± 0.000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
40.7 ± 0.4 ms
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
dyddiad darganfod1987
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)87%

62Ge

Rhif màs62
neutron number30
relative atomic mass
61.954761 ± 0.00015 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
82.5 ± 1.4 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod1991
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

63Ge

Rhif màs63
neutron number31
relative atomic mass
62.949628 ± 0.00004 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
153.6 ± 1.1 ms
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
dyddiad darganfod1991
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

64Ge

Rhif màs64
neutron number32
relative atomic mass
63.941689912 ± 0.000004 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
63.7 ± 2.5 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod1972
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

65Ge

Rhif màs65
neutron number33
relative atomic mass
64.939368136 ± 0.000002323 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
30.9 ± 0.5 s
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
dyddiad darganfod1972
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)0.011%

66Ge

Rhif màs66
neutron number34
relative atomic mass
65.933862124 ± 0.000002577 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
2.26 ± 0.05 h
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod1950
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

67Ge

Rhif màs67
neutron number35
relative atomic mass
66.932716999 ± 0.000004636 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
18.9 ± 0.3 m
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod1950
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

68Ge

Rhif màs68
neutron number36
relative atomic mass
67.928095305 ± 0.000002014 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
271.05 ± 0.08 d
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod1948
parity+

decay modeintensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

69Ge

Rhif màs69
neutron number37
relative atomic mass
68.927964467 ± 0.000001414 Da
g-factor
0.294 ± 0.0028
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
39.05 ± 0.1 h
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.114 ± 0.007
dyddiad darganfod1938
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

70Ge

Rhif màs70
neutron number38
relative atomic mass
69.924248542 ± 0.00000088 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
20.52 ± 0.19
Dadfeilio ymbelydrolstable isotope
Hanner oesNot Radioactive ☢️
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod1923
parity+

71Ge

Rhif màs71
neutron number39
relative atomic mass
70.92495212 ± 0.000000874 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
11.43 ± 0.03 d
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod1941
parity-

decay modeintensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

72Ge

Rhif màs72
neutron number40
relative atomic mass
71.922075824 ± 0.000000081 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
27.45 ± 0.15
Dadfeilio ymbelydrolstable isotope
Hanner oesNot Radioactive ☢️
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod1923
parity+

73Ge

Rhif màs73
neutron number41
relative atomic mass
72.923458954 ± 0.000000061 Da
g-factor
-0.19516444444444 ± 0.000011111111111111
natural abundance
7.76 ± 0.08
Dadfeilio ymbelydrolstable isotope
Hanner oesNot Radioactive ☢️
spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
-0.196 ± 0.001
dyddiad darganfod1933
parity+

74Ge

Rhif màs74
neutron number42
relative atomic mass
73.92117776 ± 0.000000013 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
36.52 ± 0.12
Dadfeilio ymbelydrolstable isotope
Hanner oesNot Radioactive ☢️
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod1923
parity+

75Ge

Rhif màs75
neutron number43
relative atomic mass
74.92285837 ± 0.000000055 Da
g-factor
1.018 ± 0.01
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
82.78 ± 0.04 m
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod1939
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

76Ge

Rhif màs76
neutron number44
relative atomic mass
75.921402725 ± 0.000000019 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
7.75 ± 0.12
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
1.88 ± 0.08 Zy
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod1933
parity+

decay modeintensity
(double β decay)100%

77Ge

Rhif màs77
neutron number45
relative atomic mass
76.923549843 ± 0.000000056 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
11.211 ± 0.003 h
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
dyddiad darganfod1939
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

78Ge

Rhif màs78
neutron number46
relative atomic mass
77.922852911 ± 0.000003795 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
88 ± 1 m
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod1953
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

79Ge

Rhif màs79
neutron number47
relative atomic mass
78.925359506 ± 0.000039893 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
18.98 ± 0.03 s
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod1970
parity

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

80Ge

Rhif màs80
neutron number48
relative atomic mass
79.925350773 ± 0.000002205 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
29.5 ± 0.4 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod1972
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

81Ge

Rhif màs81
neutron number49
relative atomic mass
80.928832941 ± 0.000002205 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
9 ± 2 s
spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
dyddiad darganfod1972
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

82Ge

Rhif màs82
neutron number50
relative atomic mass
81.929774031 ± 0.000002405 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
4.31 ± 0.19 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod1972
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

83Ge

Rhif màs83
neutron number51
relative atomic mass
82.9345391 ± 0.000002604 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
1.85 ± 0.06 s
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
dyddiad darganfod1972
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

84Ge

Rhif màs84
neutron number52
relative atomic mass
83.93757509 ± 0.000003403 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
951 ± 9 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod1972
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)10.6%

85Ge

Rhif màs85
neutron number53
relative atomic mass
84.942969658 ± 0.000004003 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
495 ± 5 ms
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
dyddiad darganfod1991
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)17.2%
2n (2-neutron emission)

86Ge

Rhif màs86
neutron number54
relative atomic mass
85.946967 ± 0.00047 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
221.6 ± 11 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod1994
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)45%

87Ge

Rhif màs87
neutron number55
relative atomic mass
86.953204 ± 0.000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
103 ± 4 ms
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
dyddiad darganfod1997
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

88Ge

Rhif màs88
neutron number56
relative atomic mass
87.957574 ± 0.000429 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
61 ± 6 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod1997
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

89Ge

Rhif màs89
neutron number57
relative atomic mass
88.96453 ± 0.000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
dyddiad darganfod1997
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

90Ge

Rhif màs90
neutron number58
relative atomic mass
89.969436 ± 0.000537 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod2010
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)
Germanium element

hanes

darganfyddwr neu ddyfeisiwrClemens Winkler
man darganfodGermany
dyddiad darganfod1886
geirdarddiadLatin: Germania (Germany).
ynganiadjer-MAY-ni-em (Saesneg)

source

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
1.5 mg/kg
natural abundance (cefnfor)
0.00005 mg/L
natural abundance (corff dynol)
natural abundance (Awyrfaen)
0.0021 %
natural abundance (Haul)
0.00002 %
Abundance in Universe
0.00002 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s0.7063
2p3.9178
2s8.6352
3d15.7487
3p14.9864
3s14.2103
4p25.2196
4s23.9564