Germanioa

Germanioa (Ge)

32 zenbaki atomikoa duen elementu kimikoa
Atomic Number32
Atomic Weight72.63
masa-zenbaki74
Group14
Period4
Blockp
protoi32 p+
neutroi42 n0
elektroi32 e-
Animated Bohrren eredu atomikoa of Ge (Germanioa)

Propietate Fisiko

Erradio Atomiko
125 pm
bolumen molar
Erradio Kobalente
121 pm
Metallic Radius
124 pm
Erradio ioniko
73 pm
Crystal Radius
87 pm
Van der Waalsen erradio
211 pm
dentsitatea
5,3234 g/cm³
Atomic Radii Of The Elements: Germanioa0102030405060708090100110120130140150160170180190200210220pmErradio AtomikoErradio KobalenteMetallic RadiusVan der Waalsen erradio

Magnitude Fisiko

energia
proton affinity
Afinitate elektroniko
1,232712 eV/particle
ionizazio energia
7,899435 eV/particle
ionizazio energia of Ge (Germanioa)
Irakite-entalpia
328 kJ/mol
urtze-entalpia
36,8 kJ/mol
formazio entalpia estandarra
372 kJ/mol
elektroi
elektroi geruza2, 8, 18, 4
Bohrren eredu atomikoa: Ge (Germanioa)
balentzia-elektroi4
Lewis egitura: Ge (Germanioa)
electron configuration[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p2
Enhanced Bohrren eredu atomikoa of Ge (Germanioa)
Orbital Diagram of Ge (Germanioa)
Oxidazio-egoera-4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4
Elektronegatibotasun
2.01
Electrophilicity Index
1,5636638275958255 eV/particle
materiaren funtsezko egoera
materiaren egoeraSolid
materiaren egoera gaseoso
Boiling Point
3.106,15 K
Melting Point
1.211,4 K
critical pressure
critical temperature
9.802,15 K
Puntu hirukoitz
appearance
kolore
Gray
appearancegrayish-white
errefrakzio-indize
thermodynamic material property
Thermal Conductivity
60,2 W/(m K)
Bero-dilatazio
0,000006 1/K
molar heat capacity
23,222 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
indize adiabatiko
electrical properties
typeSemiconductor
Eroankortasun elektriko
0,002 MS/m
Erresistibitate elektriko
0,0005 m Ω
Supereroankortasun
Magnetismo
typediamagnetic
suszeptibilitate magnetiko (Mass)
−0,0000000015 m³/Kg
suszeptibilitate magnetiko (Molar)
−0,000000000109 m³/mol
suszeptibilitate magnetiko (Volume)
−0,00000798
magnetic ordering
Curieren tenperatura
Néel temperature
egitura
Crystal StructureFace Centered Cubic (DIA)
lattice constant
5,66 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, π/2
materialen propietate mekaniko
Gogortasun
6 MPa
konprimagarritasun-modulu
Zizaila modulua
Youngen modulu
Poissonen modulu
Soinuaren lastertasun
5.400 m/s
classification
CategoryMetalloids, Metalloids
CAS GroupIVB
IUPAC GroupIVA
Glawe Number84
Mendeleev Number89
Pettifor Number84
Geochemical Class
Goldschmidt classificationchalcophile

beste batzuk

Gas Basicity
polarizability
40 ± 1 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
354 a₀
allotrope
Neutron cross section
2,2
Neutron Mass Absorption
0,0011
zenbaki kuantiko3P0
talde espazial225 (Fm_3m)

Isotopes of Germanium

Stable Isotopes4
Unstable Isotopes29
Natural Isotopes5
Isotopic Composition7436.52%7436.52%7227.45%7227.45%7020.52%7020.52%737.76%737.76%767.75%767.75%

58Ge

masa-zenbaki58
neutron number26
atomo-masa erlatibo
57,991863 ± 0,000537 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
desintegrazio erradioaktibo☢️ radioactive element
Semidesintegrazio-periodo
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
aurkikuntza-data
parity+

decay modeintensity
2p (2-proton emission)

59Ge

masa-zenbaki59
neutron number27
atomo-masa erlatibo
58,982426 ± 0,000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
desintegrazio erradioaktibo☢️ radioactive element
Semidesintegrazio-periodo
13,3 ± 1,7 ms
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
aurkikuntza-data2015
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)93%
2p (2-proton emission)0.2%

60Ge

masa-zenbaki60
neutron number28
atomo-masa erlatibo
59,970445 ± 0,000322 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
desintegrazio erradioaktibo☢️ radioactive element
Semidesintegrazio-periodo
21 ± 6 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
aurkikuntza-data2005
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)100%
2p (2-proton emission)14%

61Ge

masa-zenbaki61
neutron number29
atomo-masa erlatibo
60,963725 ± 0,000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
desintegrazio erradioaktibo☢️ radioactive element
Semidesintegrazio-periodo
40,7 ± 0,4 ms
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
aurkikuntza-data1987
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)87%

62Ge

masa-zenbaki62
neutron number30
atomo-masa erlatibo
61,954761 ± 0,00015 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
desintegrazio erradioaktibo☢️ radioactive element
Semidesintegrazio-periodo
82,5 ± 1,4 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
aurkikuntza-data1991
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

63Ge

masa-zenbaki63
neutron number31
atomo-masa erlatibo
62,949628 ± 0,00004 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
desintegrazio erradioaktibo☢️ radioactive element
Semidesintegrazio-periodo
153,6 ± 1,1 ms
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
aurkikuntza-data1991
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

64Ge

masa-zenbaki64
neutron number32
atomo-masa erlatibo
63,941689912 ± 0,000004 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
desintegrazio erradioaktibo☢️ radioactive element
Semidesintegrazio-periodo
63,7 ± 2,5 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
aurkikuntza-data1972
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

65Ge

masa-zenbaki65
neutron number33
atomo-masa erlatibo
64,939368136 ± 0,000002323 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
desintegrazio erradioaktibo☢️ radioactive element
Semidesintegrazio-periodo
30,9 ± 0,5 s
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
aurkikuntza-data1972
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)0.011%

66Ge

masa-zenbaki66
neutron number34
atomo-masa erlatibo
65,933862124 ± 0,000002577 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
desintegrazio erradioaktibo☢️ radioactive element
Semidesintegrazio-periodo
2,26 ± 0,05 h
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
aurkikuntza-data1950
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

67Ge

masa-zenbaki67
neutron number35
atomo-masa erlatibo
66,932716999 ± 0,000004636 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
desintegrazio erradioaktibo☢️ radioactive element
Semidesintegrazio-periodo
18,9 ± 0,3 m
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
aurkikuntza-data1950
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

68Ge

masa-zenbaki68
neutron number36
atomo-masa erlatibo
67,928095305 ± 0,000002014 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
desintegrazio erradioaktibo☢️ radioactive element
Semidesintegrazio-periodo
271,05 ± 0,08 d
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
aurkikuntza-data1948
parity+

decay modeintensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

69Ge

masa-zenbaki69
neutron number37
atomo-masa erlatibo
68,927964467 ± 0,000001414 Da
g-factor
0,294 ± 0,0028
natural abundance
desintegrazio erradioaktibo☢️ radioactive element
Semidesintegrazio-periodo
39,05 ± 0,1 h
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0,114 ± 0,007
aurkikuntza-data1938
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

70Ge

masa-zenbaki70
neutron number38
atomo-masa erlatibo
69,924248542 ± 0,00000088 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
20,52 ± 0,19
desintegrazio erradioaktiboisotopo egonkor
Semidesintegrazio-periodoNot Radioactive ☢️
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
aurkikuntza-data1923
parity+

71Ge

masa-zenbaki71
neutron number39
atomo-masa erlatibo
70,92495212 ± 0,000000874 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
desintegrazio erradioaktibo☢️ radioactive element
Semidesintegrazio-periodo
11,43 ± 0,03 d
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
aurkikuntza-data1941
parity-

decay modeintensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

72Ge

masa-zenbaki72
neutron number40
atomo-masa erlatibo
71,922075824 ± 0,000000081 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
27,45 ± 0,15
desintegrazio erradioaktiboisotopo egonkor
Semidesintegrazio-periodoNot Radioactive ☢️
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
aurkikuntza-data1923
parity+

73Ge

masa-zenbaki73
neutron number41
atomo-masa erlatibo
72,923458954 ± 0,000000061 Da
g-factor
−0,19516444444444 ± 0,000011111111111111
natural abundance
7,76 ± 0,08
desintegrazio erradioaktiboisotopo egonkor
Semidesintegrazio-periodoNot Radioactive ☢️
spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
−0,196 ± 0,001
aurkikuntza-data1933
parity+

74Ge

masa-zenbaki74
neutron number42
atomo-masa erlatibo
73,92117776 ± 0,000000013 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
36,52 ± 0,12
desintegrazio erradioaktiboisotopo egonkor
Semidesintegrazio-periodoNot Radioactive ☢️
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
aurkikuntza-data1923
parity+

75Ge

masa-zenbaki75
neutron number43
atomo-masa erlatibo
74,92285837 ± 0,000000055 Da
g-factor
1,018 ± 0,01
natural abundance
desintegrazio erradioaktibo☢️ radioactive element
Semidesintegrazio-periodo
82,78 ± 0,04 m
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
aurkikuntza-data1939
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

76Ge

masa-zenbaki76
neutron number44
atomo-masa erlatibo
75,921402725 ± 0,000000019 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
7,75 ± 0,12
desintegrazio erradioaktibo☢️ radioactive element
Semidesintegrazio-periodo
1,88 ± 0,08 Zy
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
aurkikuntza-data1933
parity+

decay modeintensity
(double β decay)100%

77Ge

masa-zenbaki77
neutron number45
atomo-masa erlatibo
76,923549843 ± 0,000000056 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
desintegrazio erradioaktibo☢️ radioactive element
Semidesintegrazio-periodo
11,211 ± 0,003 h
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
aurkikuntza-data1939
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

78Ge

masa-zenbaki78
neutron number46
atomo-masa erlatibo
77,922852911 ± 0,000003795 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
desintegrazio erradioaktibo☢️ radioactive element
Semidesintegrazio-periodo
88 ± 1 m
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
aurkikuntza-data1953
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

79Ge

masa-zenbaki79
neutron number47
atomo-masa erlatibo
78,925359506 ± 0,000039893 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
desintegrazio erradioaktibo☢️ radioactive element
Semidesintegrazio-periodo
18,98 ± 0,03 s
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
aurkikuntza-data1970
parity

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

80Ge

masa-zenbaki80
neutron number48
atomo-masa erlatibo
79,925350773 ± 0,000002205 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
desintegrazio erradioaktibo☢️ radioactive element
Semidesintegrazio-periodo
29,5 ± 0,4 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
aurkikuntza-data1972
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

81Ge

masa-zenbaki81
neutron number49
atomo-masa erlatibo
80,928832941 ± 0,000002205 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
desintegrazio erradioaktibo☢️ radioactive element
Semidesintegrazio-periodo
9 ± 2 s
spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
aurkikuntza-data1972
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

82Ge

masa-zenbaki82
neutron number50
atomo-masa erlatibo
81,929774031 ± 0,000002405 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
desintegrazio erradioaktibo☢️ radioactive element
Semidesintegrazio-periodo
4,31 ± 0,19 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
aurkikuntza-data1972
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

83Ge

masa-zenbaki83
neutron number51
atomo-masa erlatibo
82,9345391 ± 0,000002604 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
desintegrazio erradioaktibo☢️ radioactive element
Semidesintegrazio-periodo
1,85 ± 0,06 s
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
aurkikuntza-data1972
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

84Ge

masa-zenbaki84
neutron number52
atomo-masa erlatibo
83,93757509 ± 0,000003403 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
desintegrazio erradioaktibo☢️ radioactive element
Semidesintegrazio-periodo
951 ± 9 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
aurkikuntza-data1972
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)10.6%

85Ge

masa-zenbaki85
neutron number53
atomo-masa erlatibo
84,942969658 ± 0,000004003 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
desintegrazio erradioaktibo☢️ radioactive element
Semidesintegrazio-periodo
495 ± 5 ms
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
aurkikuntza-data1991
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)17.2%
2n (2-neutron emission)

86Ge

masa-zenbaki86
neutron number54
atomo-masa erlatibo
85,946967 ± 0,00047 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
desintegrazio erradioaktibo☢️ radioactive element
Semidesintegrazio-periodo
221,6 ± 11 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
aurkikuntza-data1994
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)45%

87Ge

masa-zenbaki87
neutron number55
atomo-masa erlatibo
86,953204 ± 0,000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
desintegrazio erradioaktibo☢️ radioactive element
Semidesintegrazio-periodo
103 ± 4 ms
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
aurkikuntza-data1997
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

88Ge

masa-zenbaki88
neutron number56
atomo-masa erlatibo
87,957574 ± 0,000429 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
desintegrazio erradioaktibo☢️ radioactive element
Semidesintegrazio-periodo
61 ± 6 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
aurkikuntza-data1997
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

89Ge

masa-zenbaki89
neutron number57
atomo-masa erlatibo
88,96453 ± 0,000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
desintegrazio erradioaktibo☢️ radioactive element
Semidesintegrazio-periodo
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
aurkikuntza-data1997
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

90Ge

masa-zenbaki90
neutron number58
atomo-masa erlatibo
89,969436 ± 0,000537 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
desintegrazio erradioaktibo☢️ radioactive element
Semidesintegrazio-periodo
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
aurkikuntza-data2010
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)
Germanium element

historia

aurkitzailea edo asmatzaileaClemens Winkler
aurkikuntzaren lekuaGermany
aurkikuntza-data1886
etimologiaLatin: Germania (Germany).
pronunciationjer-MAY-ni-em (ingelesa)

source

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
1,5 mg/kg
natural abundance (ozeano)
0,00005 mg/L
natural abundance (gizakiaren gorputza)
natural abundance (Meteoroide)
0,0021 %
natural abundance (Eguzkia)
0,00002 %
Abundance in Universe
0,00002 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s0.7063
2p3.9178
2s8.6352
3d15.7487
3p14.9864
3s14.2103
4p25.2196
4s23.9564