Germanij

Germanij (Ge)

chemical element with symbol Ge and atomic number 32
Atomski broj32
Relativna atomska masa72.63
Maseni broj74
Skupina14
Perioda4
Blokp
proton32 p+
neutron42 n0
elektron32 e-
Animated Bohrov model atoma of Ge (Germanij)

Physical Property

Atomski Radijus
125 pm
Molni volumen
Kovalentni Radijus
121 pm
Metallic Radius
124 pm
Ionski radijus
73 pm
Crystal Radius
87 pm
Van der Waals radius
211 pm
gustoća
5,3234 g/cm³
Atomic Radii Of The Elements: Germanij0102030405060708090100110120130140150160170180190200210220pmAtomski RadijusKovalentni RadijusMetallic RadiusVan der Waals radius

Kemijsko Svojstvo

energija
proton affinity
Elektronski afinitet
1,232712 eV/particle
ionization energy
7,899435 eV/particle
ionization energy of Ge (Germanij)
Toplina isparivanja
328 kJ/mol
toplina taljenja
36,8 kJ/mol
standard enthalpy of formation
372 kJ/mol
elektron
Elektronska ljuska2, 8, 18, 4
Bohrov model atoma: Ge (Germanij)
valence electron4
Lewis structure: Ge (Germanij)
electron configuration[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p2
Enhanced Bohrov model atoma of Ge (Germanij)
Orbital Diagram of Ge (Germanij)
Oksidacijski broj-4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4
Elektronegativnost
2.01
Electrophilicity Index
1,5636638275958255 eV/particle
fundamental state of matter
agregatno stanjeČvrsto
gaseous state of matter
Vrelište
3.106,15 K
Talište
1.211,4 K
critical pressure
critical temperature
9.802,15 K
Trojna točka
appearance
boja
Siva
appearancegrayish-white
Indeks prelamanja
thermodynamic material property
Toplinska vodljivost
60,2 W/(m K)
Toplinsko istezanje
0,000006 1/K
molar heat capacity
23,222 J/(mol K)
Specifični toplinski kapacitet
heat capacity ratio
electrical properties
typeSemiconductor
electrical conductivity
0,002 MS/m
Električna otpornost i provodnost
0,0005 m Ω
Supravodljivost
Magnetizam
typediamagnetic
Magnetna susceptibilnost (Mass)
−0,0000000015 m³/Kg
Magnetna susceptibilnost (Molar)
−0,000000000109 m³/mol
Magnetna susceptibilnost (Volume)
−0,00000798
magnetic ordering
Curieva temperatura
Néel temperature
struktura
Kristalna strukturaKubna plošno centrirana (DIA)
lattice constant
5,66 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, π/2
mechanical property
Tvrdoća
6 MPa
bulk modulus
shear modulus
Youngov modul elastičnosti
Poissonov omjer
brzina zvuka
5.400 m/s
classification
KategorijaPolumetali, Metalloids
CAS GroupIVB
IUPAC GroupIVA
Glawe Number84
Mendeleev Number89
Pettifor Number84
Geochemical Class
Goldschmidt classificationchalcophile

other

Gas Basicity
polarizability
40 ± 1 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
354 a₀
allotrope
Nuklearni udarni presjek
2,2
Neutron Mass Absorption
0,0011
Kvantni brojevi3P0
space group225 (Fm_3m)

Isotopes of Germanium

Stabilni izotopi4
Nestabilni izotopi29
Natural Isotopes5
Isotopic Composition7436.52%7436.52%7227.45%7227.45%7020.52%7020.52%737.76%737.76%767.75%767.75%

58Ge

Maseni broj58
neutron number26
Relativna atomska masa
57,991863 ± 0,000537 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma
Parnost+

decay modeintensity
2p (2-proton emission)

59Ge

Maseni broj59
neutron number27
Relativna atomska masa
58,982426 ± 0,000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
13,3 ± 1,7 ms
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma2015
Parnost-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)93%
2p (2-proton emission)0.2%

60Ge

Maseni broj60
neutron number28
Relativna atomska masa
59,970445 ± 0,000322 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
21 ± 6 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma2005
Parnost+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)100%
2p (2-proton emission)14%

61Ge

Maseni broj61
neutron number29
Relativna atomska masa
60,963725 ± 0,000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
40,7 ± 0,4 ms
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma1987
Parnost-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)87%

62Ge

Maseni broj62
neutron number30
Relativna atomska masa
61,954761 ± 0,00015 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
82,5 ± 1,4 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma1991
Parnost+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

63Ge

Maseni broj63
neutron number31
Relativna atomska masa
62,949628 ± 0,00004 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
153,6 ± 1,1 ms
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma1991
Parnost-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

64Ge

Maseni broj64
neutron number32
Relativna atomska masa
63,941689912 ± 0,000004 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
63,7 ± 2,5 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma1972
Parnost+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

65Ge

Maseni broj65
neutron number33
Relativna atomska masa
64,939368136 ± 0,000002323 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
30,9 ± 0,5 s
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma1972
Parnost-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)0.011%

66Ge

Maseni broj66
neutron number34
Relativna atomska masa
65,933862124 ± 0,000002577 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
2,26 ± 0,05 h
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma1950
Parnost+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

67Ge

Maseni broj67
neutron number35
Relativna atomska masa
66,932716999 ± 0,000004636 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
18,9 ± 0,3 m
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma1950
Parnost-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

68Ge

Maseni broj68
neutron number36
Relativna atomska masa
67,928095305 ± 0,000002014 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
271,05 ± 0,08 d
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma1948
Parnost+

decay modeintensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

69Ge

Maseni broj69
neutron number37
Relativna atomska masa
68,927964467 ± 0,000001414 Da
g-factor
0,294 ± 0,0028
natural abundance
radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
39,05 ± 0,1 h
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0,114 ± 0,007
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma1938
Parnost-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

70Ge

Maseni broj70
neutron number38
Relativna atomska masa
69,924248542 ± 0,00000088 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
20,52 ± 0,19
radioaktivnoststable isotope
Vrijeme poluraspadaNot Radioactive ☢️
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma1923
Parnost+

71Ge

Maseni broj71
neutron number39
Relativna atomska masa
70,92495212 ± 0,000000874 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
11,43 ± 0,03 d
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma1941
Parnost-

decay modeintensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

72Ge

Maseni broj72
neutron number40
Relativna atomska masa
71,922075824 ± 0,000000081 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
27,45 ± 0,15
radioaktivnoststable isotope
Vrijeme poluraspadaNot Radioactive ☢️
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma1923
Parnost+

73Ge

Maseni broj73
neutron number41
Relativna atomska masa
72,923458954 ± 0,000000061 Da
g-factor
−0,19516444444444 ± 0,000011111111111111
natural abundance
7,76 ± 0,08
radioaktivnoststable isotope
Vrijeme poluraspadaNot Radioactive ☢️
spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
−0,196 ± 0,001
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma1933
Parnost+

74Ge

Maseni broj74
neutron number42
Relativna atomska masa
73,92117776 ± 0,000000013 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
36,52 ± 0,12
radioaktivnoststable isotope
Vrijeme poluraspadaNot Radioactive ☢️
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma1923
Parnost+

75Ge

Maseni broj75
neutron number43
Relativna atomska masa
74,92285837 ± 0,000000055 Da
g-factor
1,018 ± 0,01
natural abundance
radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
82,78 ± 0,04 m
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma1939
Parnost-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

76Ge

Maseni broj76
neutron number44
Relativna atomska masa
75,921402725 ± 0,000000019 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
7,75 ± 0,12
radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
1,88 ± 0,08 Zy
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma1933
Parnost+

decay modeintensity
(double β decay)100%

77Ge

Maseni broj77
neutron number45
Relativna atomska masa
76,923549843 ± 0,000000056 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
11,211 ± 0,003 h
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma1939
Parnost+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

78Ge

Maseni broj78
neutron number46
Relativna atomska masa
77,922852911 ± 0,000003795 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
88 ± 1 m
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma1953
Parnost+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

79Ge

Maseni broj79
neutron number47
Relativna atomska masa
78,925359506 ± 0,000039893 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
18,98 ± 0,03 s
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma1970
Parnost

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

80Ge

Maseni broj80
neutron number48
Relativna atomska masa
79,925350773 ± 0,000002205 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
29,5 ± 0,4 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma1972
Parnost+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

81Ge

Maseni broj81
neutron number49
Relativna atomska masa
80,928832941 ± 0,000002205 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
9 ± 2 s
spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma1972
Parnost+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

82Ge

Maseni broj82
neutron number50
Relativna atomska masa
81,929774031 ± 0,000002405 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
4,31 ± 0,19 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma1972
Parnost+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

83Ge

Maseni broj83
neutron number51
Relativna atomska masa
82,9345391 ± 0,000002604 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
1,85 ± 0,06 s
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma1972
Parnost+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

84Ge

Maseni broj84
neutron number52
Relativna atomska masa
83,93757509 ± 0,000003403 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
951 ± 9 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma1972
Parnost+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)10.6%

85Ge

Maseni broj85
neutron number53
Relativna atomska masa
84,942969658 ± 0,000004003 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
495 ± 5 ms
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma1991
Parnost+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)17.2%
2n (2-neutron emission)

86Ge

Maseni broj86
neutron number54
Relativna atomska masa
85,946967 ± 0,00047 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
221,6 ± 11 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma1994
Parnost+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)45%

87Ge

Maseni broj87
neutron number55
Relativna atomska masa
86,953204 ± 0,000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
103 ± 4 ms
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma1997
Parnost+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

88Ge

Maseni broj88
neutron number56
Relativna atomska masa
87,957574 ± 0,000429 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
61 ± 6 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma1997
Parnost+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

89Ge

Maseni broj89
neutron number57
Relativna atomska masa
88,96453 ± 0,000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma1997
Parnost+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

90Ge

Maseni broj90
neutron number58
Relativna atomska masa
89,969436 ± 0,000537 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma2010
Parnost+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)
Germanium element

povijest

otkrio/izumioClemens Winkler
location of discoveryGermany
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma1886
EtimologijaLatin: Germania (Germany).
pronunciationjer-MAY-ni-em (engleski)

source

Obilnost
Zastupljenost u Zemljinoj kori
1,5 mg/kg
natural abundance (ocean)
0,00005 mg/L
natural abundance (tijelo)
natural abundance (meteoroid)
0,0021 %
natural abundance (Sunce)
0,00002 %
Zastupljenost u svemiru
0,00002 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s0.7063
2p3.9178
2s8.6352
3d15.7487
3p14.9864
3s14.2103
4p25.2196
4s23.9564