Germanyûm

Germanyûm (Ge)

chemical element with symbol Ge and atomic number 32
Atomic Number32
Atomic Weight72.63
Hejmara baristeyî74
Group14
Period4
Blockp
Proton32 p+
Notron42 n0
Kareva32 e-
Animated Bohr model of Ge (Germanyûm)

Physical Property

Atomic Radius
125 pm
molar volume
Covalent Radius
121 pm
Metallic Radius
124 pm
ionic radius
73 pm
Crystal Radius
87 pm
Van der Waals radius
211 pm
density
5,3234 g/cm³
Atomic Radii Of The Elements: Germanyûm020406080100120140160180200220pmAtomic RadiusCovalent RadiusMetallic RadiusVan der Waals radius

Chemical Property

wize
proton affinity
electron affinity
1,232712 eV/particle
ionization energy
7,899435 eV/particle
ionization energy of Ge (Germanyûm)
enthalpy of vaporization
328 kJ/mol
enthalpy of fusion
36,8 kJ/mol
standard enthalpy of formation
372 kJ/mol
Kareva
electron shell2, 8, 18, 4
Bohr model: Ge (Germanyûm)
valence electron4
Lewis structure: Ge (Germanyûm)
electron configuration[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p2
Enhanced Bohr model of Ge (Germanyûm)
Orbital Diagram of Ge (Germanyûm)
oxidation number-4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4
electronegativity
2.01
Electrophilicity Index
1,5636638275958255 eV/particle
fundamental state of matter
phase of matterSolid
gaseous state of matter
Boiling Point
3.106,15 K
Melting Point
1.211,4 K
critical pressure
critical temperature
9.802,15 K
triple point
appearance
color
Gray
appearancegrayish-white
refractive index
thermodynamic material property
Thermal Conductivity
60,2 W/(m K)
thermal expansion
0,000006 1/K
molar heat capacity
23,222 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
heat capacity ratio
electrical properties
typeSemiconductor
electrical conductivity
0,002 MS/m
electrical resistivity
0,0005 m Ω
superconductivity
magnetism
typediamagnetic
magnetic susceptibility (Mass)
-0,0000000015 m³/Kg
magnetic susceptibility (Molar)
-0,000000000109 m³/mol
magnetic susceptibility (Volume)
-0,00000798
magnetic ordering
Germahiya Curie
Néel temperature
pêkhate
Crystal StructureFace Centered Cubic (DIA)
lattice constant
5,66 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, π/2
mechanical property
hardness
6 MPa
bulk modulus
shear modulus
Young's modulus
Poisson's ratio
Leza dengê
5.400 m/s
classification
CategoryMetalloids, Metalloids
CAS GroupIVB
IUPAC GroupIVA
Glawe Number84
Mendeleev Number89
Pettifor Number84
Geochemical Class
Goldschmidt classificationchalcophile

other

Gas Basicity
polarizability
40 ± 1 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
354 a₀
allotrope
Neutron cross section
2,2
Neutron Mass Absorption
0,0011
quantum number3P0
space group225 (Fm_3m)

Isotopes of Germanium

Stable Isotopes4
Unstable Isotopes29
Natural Isotopes5
Isotopic Composition7436.52%7436.52%7227.45%7227.45%7020.52%7020.52%737.76%737.76%767.75%767.75%

58Ge

Hejmara baristeyî58
neutron number26
Giraniya atomê
57,991863 ± 0,000537 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dema îcadkirinê yan keşfê
parity+

decay modeintensity
2p (2-proton emission)

59Ge

Hejmara baristeyî59
neutron number27
Giraniya atomê
58,982426 ± 0,000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
13,3 ± 1,7 ms
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
dema îcadkirinê yan keşfê2015
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)93%
2p (2-proton emission)0.2%

60Ge

Hejmara baristeyî60
neutron number28
Giraniya atomê
59,970445 ± 0,000322 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
21 ± 6 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dema îcadkirinê yan keşfê2005
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)100%
2p (2-proton emission)14%

61Ge

Hejmara baristeyî61
neutron number29
Giraniya atomê
60,963725 ± 0,000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
40,7 ± 0,4 ms
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
dema îcadkirinê yan keşfê1987
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)87%

62Ge

Hejmara baristeyî62
neutron number30
Giraniya atomê
61,954761 ± 0,00015 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
82,5 ± 1,4 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dema îcadkirinê yan keşfê1991
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

63Ge

Hejmara baristeyî63
neutron number31
Giraniya atomê
62,949628 ± 0,00004 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
153,6 ± 1,1 ms
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
dema îcadkirinê yan keşfê1991
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

64Ge

Hejmara baristeyî64
neutron number32
Giraniya atomê
63,941689912 ± 0,000004 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
63,7 ± 2,5 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dema îcadkirinê yan keşfê1972
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

65Ge

Hejmara baristeyî65
neutron number33
Giraniya atomê
64,939368136 ± 0,000002323 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
30,9 ± 0,5 s
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
dema îcadkirinê yan keşfê1972
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)0.011%

66Ge

Hejmara baristeyî66
neutron number34
Giraniya atomê
65,933862124 ± 0,000002577 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
2,26 ± 0,05 h
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dema îcadkirinê yan keşfê1950
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

67Ge

Hejmara baristeyî67
neutron number35
Giraniya atomê
66,932716999 ± 0,000004636 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
18,9 ± 0,3 m
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dema îcadkirinê yan keşfê1950
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

68Ge

Hejmara baristeyî68
neutron number36
Giraniya atomê
67,928095305 ± 0,000002014 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
271,05 ± 0,08 d
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dema îcadkirinê yan keşfê1948
parity+

decay modeintensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

69Ge

Hejmara baristeyî69
neutron number37
Giraniya atomê
68,927964467 ± 0,000001414 Da
g-factor
0,294 ± 0,0028
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
39,05 ± 0,1 h
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0,114 ± 0,007
dema îcadkirinê yan keşfê1938
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

70Ge

Hejmara baristeyî70
neutron number38
Giraniya atomê
69,924248542 ± 0,00000088 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
20,52 ± 0,19
radioactivitystable isotope
half-lifeNot Radioactive ☢️
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dema îcadkirinê yan keşfê1923
parity+

71Ge

Hejmara baristeyî71
neutron number39
Giraniya atomê
70,92495212 ± 0,000000874 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
11,43 ± 0,03 d
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dema îcadkirinê yan keşfê1941
parity-

decay modeintensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

72Ge

Hejmara baristeyî72
neutron number40
Giraniya atomê
71,922075824 ± 0,000000081 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
27,45 ± 0,15
radioactivitystable isotope
half-lifeNot Radioactive ☢️
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dema îcadkirinê yan keşfê1923
parity+

73Ge

Hejmara baristeyî73
neutron number41
Giraniya atomê
72,923458954 ± 0,000000061 Da
g-factor
-0,19516444444444 ± 0,000011111111111111
natural abundance
7,76 ± 0,08
radioactivitystable isotope
half-lifeNot Radioactive ☢️
spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
-0,196 ± 0,001
dema îcadkirinê yan keşfê1933
parity+

74Ge

Hejmara baristeyî74
neutron number42
Giraniya atomê
73,92117776 ± 0,000000013 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
36,52 ± 0,12
radioactivitystable isotope
half-lifeNot Radioactive ☢️
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dema îcadkirinê yan keşfê1923
parity+

75Ge

Hejmara baristeyî75
neutron number43
Giraniya atomê
74,92285837 ± 0,000000055 Da
g-factor
1,018 ± 0,01
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
82,78 ± 0,04 m
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dema îcadkirinê yan keşfê1939
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

76Ge

Hejmara baristeyî76
neutron number44
Giraniya atomê
75,921402725 ± 0,000000019 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
7,75 ± 0,12
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
1,88 ± 0,08 Zy
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dema îcadkirinê yan keşfê1933
parity+

decay modeintensity
(double β decay)100%

77Ge

Hejmara baristeyî77
neutron number45
Giraniya atomê
76,923549843 ± 0,000000056 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
11,211 ± 0,003 h
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
dema îcadkirinê yan keşfê1939
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

78Ge

Hejmara baristeyî78
neutron number46
Giraniya atomê
77,922852911 ± 0,000003795 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
88 ± 1 m
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dema îcadkirinê yan keşfê1953
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

79Ge

Hejmara baristeyî79
neutron number47
Giraniya atomê
78,925359506 ± 0,000039893 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
18,98 ± 0,03 s
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dema îcadkirinê yan keşfê1970
parity

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

80Ge

Hejmara baristeyî80
neutron number48
Giraniya atomê
79,925350773 ± 0,000002205 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
29,5 ± 0,4 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dema îcadkirinê yan keşfê1972
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

81Ge

Hejmara baristeyî81
neutron number49
Giraniya atomê
80,928832941 ± 0,000002205 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
9 ± 2 s
spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
dema îcadkirinê yan keşfê1972
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

82Ge

Hejmara baristeyî82
neutron number50
Giraniya atomê
81,929774031 ± 0,000002405 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
4,31 ± 0,19 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dema îcadkirinê yan keşfê1972
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

83Ge

Hejmara baristeyî83
neutron number51
Giraniya atomê
82,9345391 ± 0,000002604 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
1,85 ± 0,06 s
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
dema îcadkirinê yan keşfê1972
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

84Ge

Hejmara baristeyî84
neutron number52
Giraniya atomê
83,93757509 ± 0,000003403 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
951 ± 9 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dema îcadkirinê yan keşfê1972
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)10.6%

85Ge

Hejmara baristeyî85
neutron number53
Giraniya atomê
84,942969658 ± 0,000004003 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
495 ± 5 ms
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
dema îcadkirinê yan keşfê1991
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)17.2%
2n (2-neutron emission)

86Ge

Hejmara baristeyî86
neutron number54
Giraniya atomê
85,946967 ± 0,00047 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
221,6 ± 11 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dema îcadkirinê yan keşfê1994
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)45%

87Ge

Hejmara baristeyî87
neutron number55
Giraniya atomê
86,953204 ± 0,000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
103 ± 4 ms
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
dema îcadkirinê yan keşfê1997
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

88Ge

Hejmara baristeyî88
neutron number56
Giraniya atomê
87,957574 ± 0,000429 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
61 ± 6 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dema îcadkirinê yan keşfê1997
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

89Ge

Hejmara baristeyî89
neutron number57
Giraniya atomê
88,96453 ± 0,000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
dema îcadkirinê yan keşfê1997
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

90Ge

Hejmara baristeyî90
neutron number58
Giraniya atomê
89,969436 ± 0,000537 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dema îcadkirinê yan keşfê2010
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)
Germanium element

dîrok

kaşîf an îcadkerClemens Winkler
location of discoveryGermany
dema îcadkirinê yan keşfê1886
BêjenasîLatin: Germania (Germany).
pronunciationjer-MAY-ni-em (îngilîzî)

source

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
1,5 mg/kg
natural abundance (Okyanûs)
0,00005 mg/L
natural abundance (human body)
natural abundance (meteoroid)
0,0021 %
natural abundance (Roj)
0,00002 %
Abundance in Universe
0,00002 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s0.7063
2p3.9178
2s8.6352
3d15.7487
3p14.9864
3s14.2103
4p25.2196
4s23.9564