Germanium

Germanium (Ge)

chemical element with symbol Ge and atomic number 32
Atomic Number32
Atomic Weight72.63
mass number74
Group14
Period4
Blockp
proton32 p+
neutron42 n0
electron32 e-
Animated Bohr model of Ge (Germanium)

Physical Property

Atomic Radius
125 pm
molar volume
Covalent Radius
121 pm
Metallic Radius
124 pm
ionic radius
73 pm
Crystal Radius
87 pm
Van der Waals radius
211 pm
density
5.3234 g/cm³
Atomic Radii Of The Elements: Germanium0102030405060708090100110120130140150160170180190200210220pmAtomic RadiusCovalent RadiusMetallic RadiusVan der Waals radius

Chemical Property

energia
proton affinity
electron affinity
1.232712 eV/particle
ionization energy
7.899435 eV/particle
ionization energy of Ge (Germanium)
enthalpy of vaporization
328 kJ/mol
enthalpy of fusion
36.8 kJ/mol
standard enthalpy of formation
372 kJ/mol
electron
Tegimen electronicum2, 8, 18, 4
Bohr model: Ge (Germanium)
valence electron4
Lewis structure: Ge (Germanium)
electron configuration[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p2
Enhanced Bohr model of Ge (Germanium)
Orbital Diagram of Ge (Germanium)
oxidation number-4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4
electronegativity
2.01
Electrophilicity Index
1.5636638275958255 eV/particle
fundamental state of matter
phase of matterSolid
gaseous state of matter
Boiling Point
3106.15 K
Melting Point
1211.4 K
critical pressure
critical temperature
9802.15 K
Punctum triplex
appearance
Color
Gray
appearancegrayish-white
refractive index
thermodynamic material property
Thermal Conductivity
60.2 W/(m K)
thermal expansion
0.000006 1/K
molar heat capacity
23.222 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
heat capacity ratio
electrical properties
typeSemiconductor
electrical conductivity
0.002 MS/m
electrical resistivity
0.0005 m Ω
Superconductrum
magnetism
typediamagnetic
magnetic susceptibility (Mass)
-0.0000000015 m³/Kg
magnetic susceptibility (Molar)
-0.000000000109 m³/mol
magnetic susceptibility (Volume)
-0.00000798
magnetic ordering
Curie temperature
Néel temperature
structure
Crystal StructureFace Centered Cubic (DIA)
lattice constant
5.66 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, π/2
mechanical property
hardness
6 MPa
bulk modulus
shear modulus
Young's modulus
Poisson's ratio
celeritas soni
5400 m/s
classificare
CategoryMetalloids, Metalloids
CAS GroupIVB
IUPAC GroupIVA
Glawe Number84
Mendeleev Number89
Pettifor Number84
Geochemical Class
Goldschmidt classificationchalcophile

other

Gas Basicity
polarizability
40 ± 1 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
354 a₀
allotrope
Neutron cross section
2.2
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.0011
quantum number3P0
space group225 (Fm_3m)

Isotopes of Germanium

Stable Isotopes4
Unstable Isotopes29
Natural Isotopes5
Isotopic Composition7436.52%7436.52%7227.45%7227.45%7020.52%7020.52%737.76%737.76%767.75%767.75%

58Ge

mass number58
neutron number26
relative atomic mass
57.991863 ± 0.000537 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
Volubilitas0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
repertus
parity+

decay modeintensity
2p (2-proton emission)

59Ge

mass number59
neutron number27
relative atomic mass
58.982426 ± 0.000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
13.3 ± 1.7 ms
Volubilitas7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
repertus2015
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)93%
2p (2-proton emission)0.2%

60Ge

mass number60
neutron number28
relative atomic mass
59.970445 ± 0.000322 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
21 ± 6 ms
Volubilitas0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
repertus2005
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)100%
2p (2-proton emission)14%

61Ge

mass number61
neutron number29
relative atomic mass
60.963725 ± 0.000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
40.7 ± 0.4 ms
Volubilitas3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
repertus1987
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)87%

62Ge

mass number62
neutron number30
relative atomic mass
61.954761 ± 0.00015 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
82.5 ± 1.4 ms
Volubilitas0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
repertus1991
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

63Ge

mass number63
neutron number31
relative atomic mass
62.949628 ± 0.00004 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
153.6 ± 1.1 ms
Volubilitas3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
repertus1991
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

64Ge

mass number64
neutron number32
relative atomic mass
63.941689912 ± 0.000004 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
63.7 ± 2.5 s
Volubilitas0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
repertus1972
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

65Ge

mass number65
neutron number33
relative atomic mass
64.939368136 ± 0.000002323 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
30.9 ± 0.5 s
Volubilitas3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
repertus1972
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)0.011%

66Ge

mass number66
neutron number34
relative atomic mass
65.933862124 ± 0.000002577 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
2.26 ± 0.05 h
Volubilitas0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
repertus1950
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

67Ge

mass number67
neutron number35
relative atomic mass
66.932716999 ± 0.000004636 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
18.9 ± 0.3 m
Volubilitas1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
repertus1950
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

68Ge

mass number68
neutron number36
relative atomic mass
67.928095305 ± 0.000002014 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
271.05 ± 0.08 d
Volubilitas0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
repertus1948
parity+

decay modeintensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

69Ge

mass number69
neutron number37
relative atomic mass
68.927964467 ± 0.000001414 Da
g-factor
0.294 ± 0.0028
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
39.05 ± 0.1 h
Volubilitas5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.114 ± 0.007
repertus1938
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

70Ge

mass number70
neutron number38
relative atomic mass
69.924248542 ± 0.00000088 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
20.52 ± 0.19
radioactivitasstable isotope
half-lifeNot Radioactive ☢️
Volubilitas0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
repertus1923
parity+

71Ge

mass number71
neutron number39
relative atomic mass
70.92495212 ± 0.000000874 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
11.43 ± 0.03 d
Volubilitas1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
repertus1941
parity-

decay modeintensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

72Ge

mass number72
neutron number40
relative atomic mass
71.922075824 ± 0.000000081 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
27.45 ± 0.15
radioactivitasstable isotope
half-lifeNot Radioactive ☢️
Volubilitas0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
repertus1923
parity+

73Ge

mass number73
neutron number41
relative atomic mass
72.923458954 ± 0.000000061 Da
g-factor
-0.19516444444444 ± 0.000011111111111111
natural abundance
7.76 ± 0.08
radioactivitasstable isotope
half-lifeNot Radioactive ☢️
Volubilitas9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
-0.196 ± 0.001
repertus1933
parity+

74Ge

mass number74
neutron number42
relative atomic mass
73.92117776 ± 0.000000013 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
36.52 ± 0.12
radioactivitasstable isotope
half-lifeNot Radioactive ☢️
Volubilitas0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
repertus1923
parity+

75Ge

mass number75
neutron number43
relative atomic mass
74.92285837 ± 0.000000055 Da
g-factor
1.018 ± 0.01
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
82.78 ± 0.04 m
Volubilitas1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
repertus1939
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

76Ge

mass number76
neutron number44
relative atomic mass
75.921402725 ± 0.000000019 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
7.75 ± 0.12
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
1.88 ± 0.08 Zy
Volubilitas0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
repertus1933
parity+

decay modeintensity
(double β decay)100%

77Ge

mass number77
neutron number45
relative atomic mass
76.923549843 ± 0.000000056 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
11.211 ± 0.003 h
Volubilitas7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
repertus1939
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

78Ge

mass number78
neutron number46
relative atomic mass
77.922852911 ± 0.000003795 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
88 ± 1 m
Volubilitas0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
repertus1953
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

79Ge

mass number79
neutron number47
relative atomic mass
78.925359506 ± 0.000039893 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
18.98 ± 0.03 s
Volubilitas1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
repertus1970
parity

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

80Ge

mass number80
neutron number48
relative atomic mass
79.925350773 ± 0.000002205 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
29.5 ± 0.4 s
Volubilitas0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
repertus1972
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

81Ge

mass number81
neutron number49
relative atomic mass
80.928832941 ± 0.000002205 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
9 ± 2 s
Volubilitas9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
repertus1972
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

82Ge

mass number82
neutron number50
relative atomic mass
81.929774031 ± 0.000002405 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
4.31 ± 0.19 s
Volubilitas0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
repertus1972
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

83Ge

mass number83
neutron number51
relative atomic mass
82.9345391 ± 0.000002604 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
1.85 ± 0.06 s
Volubilitas5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
repertus1972
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

84Ge

mass number84
neutron number52
relative atomic mass
83.93757509 ± 0.000003403 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
951 ± 9 ms
Volubilitas0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
repertus1972
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)10.6%

85Ge

mass number85
neutron number53
relative atomic mass
84.942969658 ± 0.000004003 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
495 ± 5 ms
Volubilitas3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
repertus1991
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)17.2%
2n (2-neutron emission)

86Ge

mass number86
neutron number54
relative atomic mass
85.946967 ± 0.00047 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
221.6 ± 11 ms
Volubilitas0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
repertus1994
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)45%

87Ge

mass number87
neutron number55
relative atomic mass
86.953204 ± 0.000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
103 ± 4 ms
Volubilitas5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
repertus1997
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

88Ge

mass number88
neutron number56
relative atomic mass
87.957574 ± 0.000429 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
61 ± 6 ms
Volubilitas0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
repertus1997
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

89Ge

mass number89
neutron number57
relative atomic mass
88.96453 ± 0.000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
Volubilitas3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
repertus1997
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

90Ge

mass number90
neutron number58
relative atomic mass
89.969436 ± 0.000537 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
Volubilitas0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
repertus2010
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)
Germanium element

historia

inventorClemens Winkler
location of discoveryGermany
repertus1886
EtymologiaLatin: Germania (Germany).
pronunciationjer-MAY-ni-em (English)

source

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
1.5 mg/kg
natural abundance (Oceanus)
0.00005 mg/L
natural abundance (Corpus humanum)
natural abundance (Meteoroides)
0.0021 %
natural abundance (Sol)
0.00002 %
Abundance in Universe
0.00002 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s0.7063
2p3.9178
2s8.6352
3d15.7487
3p14.9864
3s14.2103
4p25.2196
4s23.9564