Germani

Germani (Ge)

chemical element with symbol Ge and atomic number 32
Atomic Number32
Atomic Weight72.63
mass number74
Group14
Period4
Blockp
proton32 p+
neutron42 n0
electron32 e-
Animated Bohr model of Ge (Germani)

Proprietat Fisica

Rai Atomic
125 pm
molar volume
covalent radius
121 pm
Metallic Radius
124 pm
ionic radius
73 pm
Crystal Radius
87 pm
Rai de van der Waals
211 pm
densitat
5.3234 g/cm³
Atomic Radii Of The Elements: Germani0102030405060708090100110120130140150160170180190200210220pmRai AtomicCovalent RadiusMetallic RadiusRai de van der Waals

Chemical Property

energia
proton affinity
electron affinity
1.232712 eV/particle
ionization energy
7.899435 eV/particle
ionization energy of Ge (Germani)
enthalpy of vaporization
328 kJ/mol
enthalpy of fusion
36.8 kJ/mol
standard enthalpy of formation
372 kJ/mol
electron
electron shell2, 8, 18, 4
Bohr model: Ge (Germani)
valence electron4
Lewis structure: Ge (Germani)
electron configuration[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p2
Enhanced Bohr model of Ge (Germani)
Orbital Diagram of Ge (Germani)
oxidation number-4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4
Electronegativitat
2.01
Electrophilicity Index
1.5636638275958255 eV/particle
fundamental state of matter
estat de la matèriaSolid
gaseous state of matter
Boiling Point
3106.15 K
Melting Point
1211.4 K
critical pressure
critical temperature
9802.15 K
Ponch triple
appearance
Color
Gray
appearancegrayish-white
Indici de refraccion
thermodynamic material property
Thermal Conductivity
60.2 W/(m K)
thermal expansion
0.000006 1/K
molar heat capacity
23.222 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
heat capacity ratio
electrical properties
typeSemiconductor
electrical conductivity
0.002 MS/m
electrical resistivity
0.0005 m Ω
superconductivity
magnetism
typediamagnetic
magnetic susceptibility (Mass)
-0.0000000015 m³/Kg
magnetic susceptibility (Molar)
-0.000000000109 m³/mol
magnetic susceptibility (Volume)
-0.00000798
magnetic ordering
Curie temperature
Néel temperature
estructura
Crystal StructureFace Centered Cubic (DIA)
lattice constant
5.66 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, π/2
mechanical property
Duretat
6 MPa
bulk modulus
shear modulus
Young's modulus
Poisson's ratio
speed of sound
5400 m/s
classification
CategoryMetalloids, Metalloids
CAS GroupIVB
IUPAC GroupIVA
Glawe Number84
Mendeleev Number89
Pettifor Number84
Geochemical Class
Goldschmidt classificationchalcophile

other

Gas Basicity
polarizability
40 ± 1 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
354 a₀
allotrope
Neutron cross section
2.2
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.0011
quantum number3P0
space group225 (Fm_3m)

Isotopes of Germanium

Stable Isotopes4
Unstable Isotopes29
Natural Isotopes5
Isotopic Composition7436.52%7436.52%7227.45%7227.45%7020.52%7020.52%737.76%737.76%767.75%767.75%

58Ge

mass number58
neutron number26
relative atomic mass
57.991863 ± 0.000537 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioactivitat☢️ radioactive element
Semivida
Espin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
data de descobèrta
parity+

decay modeintensity
2p (2-proton emission)

59Ge

mass number59
neutron number27
relative atomic mass
58.982426 ± 0.000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioactivitat☢️ radioactive element
Semivida
13.3 ± 1.7 ms
Espin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
data de descobèrta2015
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)93%
2p (2-proton emission)0.2%

60Ge

mass number60
neutron number28
relative atomic mass
59.970445 ± 0.000322 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioactivitat☢️ radioactive element
Semivida
21 ± 6 ms
Espin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
data de descobèrta2005
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)100%
2p (2-proton emission)14%

61Ge

mass number61
neutron number29
relative atomic mass
60.963725 ± 0.000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioactivitat☢️ radioactive element
Semivida
40.7 ± 0.4 ms
Espin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
data de descobèrta1987
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)87%

62Ge

mass number62
neutron number30
relative atomic mass
61.954761 ± 0.00015 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioactivitat☢️ radioactive element
Semivida
82.5 ± 1.4 ms
Espin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
data de descobèrta1991
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

63Ge

mass number63
neutron number31
relative atomic mass
62.949628 ± 0.00004 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioactivitat☢️ radioactive element
Semivida
153.6 ± 1.1 ms
Espin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
data de descobèrta1991
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

64Ge

mass number64
neutron number32
relative atomic mass
63.941689912 ± 0.000004 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioactivitat☢️ radioactive element
Semivida
63.7 ± 2.5 s
Espin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
data de descobèrta1972
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

65Ge

mass number65
neutron number33
relative atomic mass
64.939368136 ± 0.000002323 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioactivitat☢️ radioactive element
Semivida
30.9 ± 0.5 s
Espin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
data de descobèrta1972
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)0.011%

66Ge

mass number66
neutron number34
relative atomic mass
65.933862124 ± 0.000002577 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioactivitat☢️ radioactive element
Semivida
2.26 ± 0.05 h
Espin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
data de descobèrta1950
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

67Ge

mass number67
neutron number35
relative atomic mass
66.932716999 ± 0.000004636 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioactivitat☢️ radioactive element
Semivida
18.9 ± 0.3 m
Espin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
data de descobèrta1950
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

68Ge

mass number68
neutron number36
relative atomic mass
67.928095305 ± 0.000002014 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioactivitat☢️ radioactive element
Semivida
271.05 ± 0.08 d
Espin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
data de descobèrta1948
parity+

decay modeintensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

69Ge

mass number69
neutron number37
relative atomic mass
68.927964467 ± 0.000001414 Da
g-factor
0.294 ± 0.0028
natural abundance
Radioactivitat☢️ radioactive element
Semivida
39.05 ± 0.1 h
Espin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.114 ± 0.007
data de descobèrta1938
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

70Ge

mass number70
neutron number38
relative atomic mass
69.924248542 ± 0.00000088 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
20.52 ± 0.19
Radioactivitatstable isotope
SemividaNot Radioactive ☢️
Espin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
data de descobèrta1923
parity+

71Ge

mass number71
neutron number39
relative atomic mass
70.92495212 ± 0.000000874 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioactivitat☢️ radioactive element
Semivida
11.43 ± 0.03 d
Espin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
data de descobèrta1941
parity-

decay modeintensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

72Ge

mass number72
neutron number40
relative atomic mass
71.922075824 ± 0.000000081 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
27.45 ± 0.15
Radioactivitatstable isotope
SemividaNot Radioactive ☢️
Espin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
data de descobèrta1923
parity+

73Ge

mass number73
neutron number41
relative atomic mass
72.923458954 ± 0.000000061 Da
g-factor
-0.19516444444444 ± 0.000011111111111111
natural abundance
7.76 ± 0.08
Radioactivitatstable isotope
SemividaNot Radioactive ☢️
Espin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
-0.196 ± 0.001
data de descobèrta1933
parity+

74Ge

mass number74
neutron number42
relative atomic mass
73.92117776 ± 0.000000013 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
36.52 ± 0.12
Radioactivitatstable isotope
SemividaNot Radioactive ☢️
Espin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
data de descobèrta1923
parity+

75Ge

mass number75
neutron number43
relative atomic mass
74.92285837 ± 0.000000055 Da
g-factor
1.018 ± 0.01
natural abundance
Radioactivitat☢️ radioactive element
Semivida
82.78 ± 0.04 m
Espin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
data de descobèrta1939
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

76Ge

mass number76
neutron number44
relative atomic mass
75.921402725 ± 0.000000019 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
7.75 ± 0.12
Radioactivitat☢️ radioactive element
Semivida
1.88 ± 0.08 Zy
Espin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
data de descobèrta1933
parity+

decay modeintensity
(double β decay)100%

77Ge

mass number77
neutron number45
relative atomic mass
76.923549843 ± 0.000000056 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioactivitat☢️ radioactive element
Semivida
11.211 ± 0.003 h
Espin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
data de descobèrta1939
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

78Ge

mass number78
neutron number46
relative atomic mass
77.922852911 ± 0.000003795 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioactivitat☢️ radioactive element
Semivida
88 ± 1 m
Espin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
data de descobèrta1953
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

79Ge

mass number79
neutron number47
relative atomic mass
78.925359506 ± 0.000039893 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioactivitat☢️ radioactive element
Semivida
18.98 ± 0.03 s
Espin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
data de descobèrta1970
parity

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

80Ge

mass number80
neutron number48
relative atomic mass
79.925350773 ± 0.000002205 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioactivitat☢️ radioactive element
Semivida
29.5 ± 0.4 s
Espin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
data de descobèrta1972
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

81Ge

mass number81
neutron number49
relative atomic mass
80.928832941 ± 0.000002205 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioactivitat☢️ radioactive element
Semivida
9 ± 2 s
Espin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
data de descobèrta1972
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

82Ge

mass number82
neutron number50
relative atomic mass
81.929774031 ± 0.000002405 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioactivitat☢️ radioactive element
Semivida
4.31 ± 0.19 s
Espin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
data de descobèrta1972
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

83Ge

mass number83
neutron number51
relative atomic mass
82.9345391 ± 0.000002604 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioactivitat☢️ radioactive element
Semivida
1.85 ± 0.06 s
Espin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
data de descobèrta1972
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

84Ge

mass number84
neutron number52
relative atomic mass
83.93757509 ± 0.000003403 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioactivitat☢️ radioactive element
Semivida
951 ± 9 ms
Espin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
data de descobèrta1972
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)10.6%

85Ge

mass number85
neutron number53
relative atomic mass
84.942969658 ± 0.000004003 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioactivitat☢️ radioactive element
Semivida
495 ± 5 ms
Espin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
data de descobèrta1991
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)17.2%
2n (2-neutron emission)

86Ge

mass number86
neutron number54
relative atomic mass
85.946967 ± 0.00047 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioactivitat☢️ radioactive element
Semivida
221.6 ± 11 ms
Espin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
data de descobèrta1994
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)45%

87Ge

mass number87
neutron number55
relative atomic mass
86.953204 ± 0.000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioactivitat☢️ radioactive element
Semivida
103 ± 4 ms
Espin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
data de descobèrta1997
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

88Ge

mass number88
neutron number56
relative atomic mass
87.957574 ± 0.000429 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioactivitat☢️ radioactive element
Semivida
61 ± 6 ms
Espin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
data de descobèrta1997
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

89Ge

mass number89
neutron number57
relative atomic mass
88.96453 ± 0.000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioactivitat☢️ radioactive element
Semivida
Espin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
data de descobèrta1997
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

90Ge

mass number90
neutron number58
relative atomic mass
89.969436 ± 0.000537 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioactivitat☢️ radioactive element
Semivida
Espin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
data de descobèrta2010
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)
Germanium element

istòria

descobridor o inventaireClemens Winkler
luòc de descobèrtaGermany
data de descobèrta1886
EtimologiaLatin: Germania (Germany).
pronunciationjer-MAY-ni-em (English)

source

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
1.5 mg/kg
natural abundance (Ocean)
0.00005 mg/L
natural abundance (còs uman)
natural abundance (meteoroid)
0.0021 %
natural abundance (Solelh)
0.00002 %
Abundance in Universe
0.00002 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s0.7063
2p3.9178
2s8.6352
3d15.7487
3p14.9864
3s14.2103
4p25.2196
4s23.9564